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No. 549. Vol. XI.] JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS. [May 29, 1868. 

FRIDAY, MAT 29, 1863. 

The Council have had under consideration a 
communication from the Society of Wood Car- 
vers, asking the aid of the Society of Arts in 
promoting the art of wood carving in this country, 
and they have agreed to allow the use of the 
Society's rooms for the purpose ot holding an 
Exhibition of Wood Carving, both modern and 
ancient, in the month of June, 1863. The Coun- 
cil have further agreed to offer the Society's 
Silver Medal and to make a grant of £30, the 
Society of Wood Carvers giving £15, as a fund 
for prizes to be awarded to exhibitors on that 
occasion, in the following divisions, provided 
that in the opinion of the judges the articles 
possess sufficient merit, thus : — 
First Division. 
Human figure in alto or bas relief. Animals or natvrral 
foliage may be used as accessories. 

1st Prize of £8 and the Society's Silver Medal. 
2nd Prize of £4. 
3rd Prize of £3. 

Second Division. 
Animal or Still Life. Fruit, flowers, or natural foliage, 
may be used as accessories. 

1st Prize of £8. 
2nd Prize of £4. 
3rd Prize of £3. 

Third Division. 
Natural foliage, fruit, or flowers, or conventional orna- 
ment in which grotesque figures or animals may form ac- 
cessories, preference being given where the work is of an 
applied character for ordinary decorative purposes, as re- 
presenting commercial value. 

1st Prize of £8. 
2nd Prize of £4. 
3rd Prize of £3. 

Employers or private owners may be Ex- 
hibitors, but bona fide workmen only can receive 

The prizes are open to all Art workmen in 
Great Britain, whether belonging to the Society 
of Wood Carvers or not. 

The judges will be selected as follows : — Four 
by the Council of the Society of Arts, and three 
by the Society of Wood Carvers. 

All articles for exhibition and competition 
must be sent in to the Society's House on or 
before Monday next, the 1st of June, 1863, and 
must be delivered free of all charges. Each 
work sent in competition for a prize must be 
marked with the workman's name, or, if pre- 
ferred, with a cypher, accompanied by a sealed 
envelope giving the name and address of the 
workman. With the articles, a description for 
insertion in the Catalogue should be sent. 

Before the award of the prizes is confirmed, 
the Candidate must be prepared to execute some 
piece of work sufficient to satisfy the Council of 
his competency. 

Although great care will be taken of articles 
sent for Exhibition, the Council will not be re- 
sponsible for any accident or damages of any 
kind occurring at any time. 

Prices may be attached to articles exhibited 
and sales made, and no charge will be made in 
respect of any such sales. 


The Twelfth Annual Conference of the Re- 
presentatives of the Institutions in Union and 
the Local Educational Boards with the Council 
will be held on Friday, the 12th June, at Twelve 
o'clock, noon. Sir Thomas Phillips, F.G.S., 
Chairman of the Council, will preside. 

Secretaries of Institutions in Union are re- 
quested to forward, as soon as possible, to 
the Secretary of the Society of Arts, the names 
of the Representatives appointed to attend the 
Conference. The Chairmen or other Represen- 
tatives of the Local Boards of Examiners are in- 
vited to attend the Conference. 

The Council will lay before the Conference 
the Secretary's Report of the Proceedings of the 
Union for the past year, and the Results of the 
Examinations of the Central Committee of Edu- 
cational Unions. The time for holding the So- 
ciety's Examinations next year will also be con- 

The following subjects are suggested for dis- 
cussion : — 

1. Whether in the Elementary Examinations, in addi- 
tion to the uniformity already, to a great extent, secured 
by the supply of the same papers of questions to the various 
Local Boards, further uniformity may not be obtained by 
a plan for aiding the Local Examiners in the estimation 
of the Candidates' answers ? 

2. Whether it is desirable to dispense with the " Pre- 
vious Examinations" in special subjects ? 

3. The propriety of the Society of Arts employing an 
Organising Agent to visit the various Institutions. 

4. How far is it desirable and practicable to combine 
the objects of the Working Men's Clubs — viz., amusements, 
draughts, chess, refreshment, &c, with the educational 
objects of Mechanics' Institutes, and whether the mem- 
bers of Institutes can be retained during the summer, by 
providing healthful recreation and studies requiring illus- 
tration from nature ? 

5. The propriety of holding one or more meetings of 
Representatives of Institutes about the time of the Annual 
Conference at the Society of Arts, for the purpose of 
reading short papers or essays on various subjects of in- 

6. The expediency and means of establishing com- 
petitive exhibitions of the Works pf Art Workmen and 
Skilled Artisans. 

7. Whether it would be expedient that Apprentices 
should be examined, at the conclusion of their term, in 
the principles and practice of their craft or business, and 
Certificates granted to them ? 



8. Whether it would not be desirable for Institutions 
to give Testimonials to their members, and to keep re- 
gisters of those so recommended by other Institutions ? 

9. The expediency of holding local competitions in 

Notice of any other subjects which Represen- 
tatives may desire to introduce to the notice of 
the Conference should be given to the Secretary 
of the Society of Arts, to whom should also be 
forwarded a copy of the last Annual Report of 
each Institution. 

Representatives of Institutions and Local 
Boards attending the Conference are invited to 
the Society's Conversazione, at the South Ken- 
sington Museum, in the evening of the same day 
(12th June), and will receive cards on application 
at the Society's House on the day of the Con- 


The Council have arranged for a Conversazione 
at the South Kensington Museum, on Friday 
evening, the 12th June, for which cards have 
been issued. 


The following additional names have been re- 
ceived up to the 28th inst. : — 

Aldam, William £1 1 

Hopkins, Evan 110 

Perkins, Ainger March , 110 

Eobinson, George 10 

Bolls, K. H 110 

Villiers, Kt. Hon. C. Pelham, M.P 110 

Wilson, Lestock Peach 110 



With a view to promote enlarged investments 
of capital in model dwellings and other estab- 
lishments for the benefit of the working classes, 
the Council of the Society of Arts has instituted 
a statistical inquiry into the results hitherto 
obtained, including family dwellings of every 
description, model lodging-houses, dormitories, 
refuges, baths and washhouses, soup kitchens, 
coffee-houses, &c. 

Members and others who can supply infor- 
mation or indicate sources where it may be ob- 
tained, are requested to communicate with the 
Secretary, who will send blank forms for being 
filled up with the required data. 


A Meeting of the Committee on the Colonies 
took place on Friday afternoon, 22nd of May, Sir 
Thomas Phillips, Chairman of the Council, in 
the chair. 

The Chairman, in opening the meeting, re- 
marked that the colonies were a subject of the 
greatest interest. The relation of the home 
government to the colonies, and the relation of 
the colonies inter sc — the modes by which the 
productions of the colonies might be made known 
in this country, and by which that interchange 
might take place which was calculated to pro- 
mote the interests of all parties — were topics 
which had often been considered in that room, 
and which might always be considered usefully. 

Mr. Fitzgerald said, being a landholder in West 
Australia, and being anxious for the welfare of that 
colony, lie might mention that he had been informed 
that there was a tree there which yields a gum called the 
" Black- boy gum," and this, when dissolved in spirits of 
wine, was used for colouring. He could procure a sample 
of this gum for the Society to examine if they thought 
it worth attention. Then there was the " red gum," a 
powerful astringent, and very useful in cases of diarrhoea. 
It was exhibited at the International Exhibition, but was 
but little known in this country. There were immense 
tracts of sandy land in West Australia, where one variety 
of the wild castor-oil plant grew, and he believed it was 
that on which the Bombyx Cynthia fed, which produced 
that rough kind of silk which came from the Burmese ter- 
ritory. That, also, h« thought, might be brought before 
the consideration of the colonies by offering a premium for 
its production. He would mention that lately he sent a 
cwt. of Sea Island cotton to this colony to see how it 
would grow there. The seed was a portion of that cap- 
tured at New Orleans by the Federal forces lately, and 
which he obtained from the Cotton Supply Association at 
Manchester. There was every reason to believe that the 
condition of that colony was such that cotton might be 
produced there at a lower rate than almost anywhere else. 
It was a question of labour, with which was mixed up 
the subject of coolie emigration. 

Mr. P. L. Simmonds remarked that the black-boy gum 
or resin was a well known article of commerce, and was 
called by two or three different names. It yielded a yel- 
low dye, and was used to a small extent by varnish makers, 
and also medicinally. In the colonies it had been tried 
for gas making and for other purposes, and he did not 
think anything could be dene to stimulate its production 
more than had been done by the colonists themselves. 
The red gum had been spoken very favourably of in the 
colonics, and possessed valuable medicinal qualities. It 
was a good astringent. Another product was the West 
Australian mahogany, a series of Eucalyptus, which pos- 
sessed remarkable properties for shipbuilding. 

Mr. Ashworth remarked that it was rather more than » 
year ago that he had the honour to submit to this Society 
a paper entitled " Our Colonies, their Commerce, and 
their Cost," and seeing he was connected with commerce, 
he took it for granted that he had claims to be heard on 
the commercial aspect of this question. Our colonial af- 
fairs were largely mixed up with military, naval, eccle- 
siastical, judicial, and governmental matters, each of which 
was deemed exceedingly important. The commercial 
aspect ought not to be entirely overlooked, inasmuch as 
the expenditure for the colonies in this country amounted 
to a very large sum. It was not only necessary, but ex- 
pedient, that we should now and then " take stock" (to 
use a commercial phrase) in regard to the expenses we 
incur in comparison with the advantages, or probable ad- 
vantages, to be derived from the occupation of those colo- 
nies ; in fact, the expenses attending our colonial manage- 
ment had already had the effect of raising in this country 
very important considerations as to the policy or impolicy 
of holding or abandoning our colonial possessions. He 
did not mean to say that the country had arrived at the 
conclusion that we should be better divested of our colo- 



nies, but from what he had seen he believed their manage- 
ment required a much closer investigation than we had 
hitherto bestowed upon it. It was cheering to anti- 
cipate, at a time like the present, that from Queens- 
land especially we were likely to derive a considerable 
quantity of very excellent cotton. It would have been 
gratifying if we could have seen that our West India 
colonies had promised favourably in the way of cotton 
culture. In those islands we had a very wide range of 
soil capable of producing cotton, if we knew how to use 
it. We had ceased to receive from that region any large 
amount of cotton for a long time back ; and now, when 
. we were casting about and considering i» what manner the 
material could be supplied ; when even the Sultan had 
become awakened to the advantages of cotton culture ; 
when the people of Italy, Algeria, Paraguay, and other 
countries, had begun to take advantage of the inquiry for it, 
it was remarka! >le that, when public companies were foimed 
here for its cultivation, they received very little support in 
our colonies. In Jamaica but little money had been sub- 
scribed for that purpose ; but in Queensland more assist- 
ance had been given. Referring to the colonies, he found 
in a return moved for a few weeks since by Mr. Bazley, 
that the expenses incurred by the home government in 
the West India islands for governors amounted to £20,000, 
and that in the judicial department the cost was about 
£6,300 a year, whilst the ecclesiastical cost £20,700. 
All this was paid by the home government, and was 
irrespective of the amount paid for military purposes. In 
Canada we had a fearful picture of colonial mi6go- 
vernment. Its population was about equal to that 
of Lancashire — something like 2,500,000 — and the ex- 
penses we incurred to govern that people were enor- 
mous. A large portion of Lower Canada was peopled 
by a low description of French population, a class of 
people who divided and subdivided the land into very 
minute portions, and who had nothing to sell, and ijo 
money wherewith to buy. Mr. Ashworth then referred to 
the colonies as being unfettered in their commerce, and per- 
mitted to sell and buy wherever they pleased ; and in re- 
ference to Canada he* said that less than one-half of what 
they sold came to this country, and less than one-half of 
what they bought was sent from us. The Canadians were 
allowed to take charge of their own affairs, but they were 
very chary about serving as militia. They would not 
offend the Americans by placing themselves in a defensive 
attitude, and if anything was to be done for the protection 
of the country from foreign aggression it must be done at 
the expense of the mother country. He believed if we 
were to look back for the last fifty years, we should find 
our military expenses for Canada had been something like 
half-a-million a year. The Canadians argued that this 
expenditure was not incurred on their behalf, but that their 
country was made the receptacle forsupernumerary soldiers, 
as they could be conveniently accommodated there, away 
from the sight of the British tax-payer. He thought 
these were characteristics of our colonial system which 
might properly be brought under the discussion of this 
Society ; and if the Committee were disposed to take up 
questions of this nature, he should be ready to investigate 
the advantages and disadvantages which accrued to this 
country in regard to the commercial aspect of our colonial 

Mr. Fitzgerald believed that the Manchester Chamber 
of Commerce last year were by no means unanimous in 
considering the colonies as incumbrances on the national 

Sir Thomas Phillips being obliged to leave the meet- 
ing, the chair was, during the remainder of the discussion, 
occupied by Mr. William Hawes. 

The Chairman had heard only the latter part of Mr. 
Ashworth's observations, but he should decidedly object to 
the committee taking up the question politically. He knew 
Mr. Ashworth's views with regard to the colonies, and 
differed from them. The question of the cost of the co- 
lonies was matter of scarcely any moment at all compared 

to their enormous value to this country, and to the duty 
the country owed to those persons who had emigrated 
from our shores. He looked upon this expenditure as 
being for the protection of the Queen's subjects in her 
respective colonies. The object of this committee was to 
make suggestions which might help to develop the in- 
dustries of the colonies, with a view to bringing before the 
people of this country the best fields open for them, and 
far the utilisation of a great variety of products, many of 
which were scarcely known. 

Mr. Ashworth disclaimed that he took merely a poli- 
tical view of the colonies, remarking that his observations 
were on their commercial aspect. 

Mr. Fitzokrald thought it would be very difficult to 
draw a line between politics and commerce, as regarded 
this question. 

Mr. Ashworth conceived that after what we had done 
for Canada, that colony was not wise in raising its tariff 
against this country. A duty of 20 per cent, was a large 
tax to impose upon British manufactures, to a country 
which was year by year involving us in expensive govern- 
ment. Moreover, when we saw their tariff very often run 
parallel with that of the United States, we could not fail 
to imagine there was a species of harmony prevailing be- 
tween the policies of the two eounti ies. He thought this 
committee would do wisely to discriminate between those 
colonies which were acting in harmony with the mother- 
country and those which were not. 

The Chairman agreed with Mr. Ashworth that it was 
a hard case that Canada should be allowed to put any 
amount of duty upon the manufactures of this country. 
But whether it arose through any sympathy between them 
and the United States, he was not prepared to say. It 
was a great disadvantage to our manufacturers, and he 
thought there ought to be a little more reciprocity in this 

Mr. Broomhall asked whether this high rate of duty 
was confined to Canada? 

The Chairman replied that it was not. It was gradu- 
ally creeping over all the colonies. Cape Colony, which 
had a duty of 5 per cent., had recently raised it to 7J per 
cent., and he believed the same thing had been done in 
some of the Australian colonies. 

Mr. Broomhall said that when he Went to India, 
twenty-one years ago, the duty was 2J per cent. ; it was 
raised to 3 j per cent. ; then to 5 ; and subsequently to 
10 per cent. ; so that the case of Canada was not an iso- 
lated one. 

The Chairman said that in Canada the duty in some 
instances had gone up to 25 per cent. They must not, 
however, judge of the question purely by the rate of 
tariff. It was mixed up also with the question of tax- 
ation. It was clear if the colonists paid income taxes or 
assessed taxes, in lieu of taxes upon imports, it would 
affect the industry of the colonies nearly as much. The 
import duties were doubtless evaded to a certain extent 
along the extensive frontier of Canada. 

Mr. Broomhall remarked, in regard to India, that, 
owing to the mode of levying taxes there, it was frequently 
the case that the Europeans paid scarcely any duty at all. 
When the matter was under discussion in the Houses of 
Parliament, Lord Stanley spoke to him on the subject, 
and he (Mr. Broomhill) told him that all the taxes he 
paid in India did not exceed fourteen shillings a year. 

A discussion ensued as to the mode of procedure to be 
observed at the next meeting of the Committee. 


Wednesday, May 27, 1863. 

The Twenty-Fourth Ordinary Meeting of the 
One Hundred and Ninth Session was held on 



Wednesday, the 27th inst., Thomas Winkworth, 
Esq., Member of Council, in the chair. 

The following candidates were balloted for 
and duly elected members of the Society : — 

Drake, Henry { a^Duke-street.Westminster, 

Eales, Christopher { 9 ' jjjtae ^ reet ' Cavendish- 

x,, ,,,.„. ( 38, Finchley-road, St. John's- 

Edney, William J wood, N.W. 

Elliot, Russel 101 , Long-acre, W. C. 

Elt, Charles Henry 1, Noel-street, Islington, N. 

( Census Office, Craig's court, 
Hammick, James Thos...-! S.W., and 6, Winchester- 

( road, Hampstead, N.W. 
BoperCurzon, Hon. H.... { ^^Argyll-road, Kensington, 

Smith, W. H 150, Leadenhall-street, E.C. 

„, , T . f Egremont-villa, Lower Nor 

Taylor, John | wood, 8. 

The Paper read was — 


By B. H. Paxil, Ph.D. 

The effects produced by the application of heat to 
various substances must have been among the earliest 
observed chemical phenomena. The differences exist- 
ing between the effects produced by heat upon different 
substances, were recognised at a very remote period in 
the history of chemistry, and among them the phenomena 
of distillation received especial attention. In some cases 
the application of heat to a substance has the effect of dis- 
sipating it entirely ; such substances, of which water is a 
familial- example, are said to be volatile, and if substances 
of this kind are heated in closed vessels of suitable con- 
struction they may be recovered again, in their original 
condition, by the condensation of their vapour. This, in 
the strictest sense of the term, constitutes distillation. The 
volatile substance, absorbing the heat applied to it, be- 
comes converted into vapour ; — by abstracting from that 
vapour the heat which has been absorbed, it is converted 
into the original substance. In this way distillation is 
employed as a means of separating volatile substances 
from others which are not volatile, and which are, in con- 
tradistinction, termed fixed substances. ' This distinction 
between tixed and volatile substances is, however, in 
most cases merely relative, and it applies only to such a 
range of temperature as is commonly attainable. There 
are good reasons for the opinion that the substances com- 
monly regarded as fixed , might be converted into vapour if 
their temperature could be increased to a sufficient degree. 
But among the substances which, in this limited sense, are 
termed fixed, there are some which certainly cannot be con- 
verted into vapour, in any case, without entirely losing their 
identity ; without, in other words, being converted into to- 
tally different substances. Thus, for instance, wood is not 
a volatile substance, and at the same time it is not a fixed 
substance, except within a certain limited range of tem- 
perature. When heated much above the boiling point of 
water, wood is partially converted into vapour, to an extent 
proportionate to the temperature employed, but the vapour 
so produced cannot be reconverted into wood by cooling it, 
as the vapour of water can be reconveitcd into water. The 
change produced by the heating is a true chemical change. 
Most substances analogous to wood undergo a change of 
this nature when healed in close vessels ; they are, in 
chemical language, decomposed, and the substances into 
which they are converted are called the products of the 
decomposition. These products are partly volatile. It is 
only in this way that substances which are not in them- 
selves volatile can be said to distil, and it is this conver- 

sion of substances, by the application of heat, into new- 
substances, that constitutes what is termed destructive 

The products of this alteration present, in all cases, a 
general similarity. There is, in the first place, the car- 
bonaceous residue, which cannot be volatilized— the 
" coal," as it was formerly called. Amongst the volatile 
products, water and oil are conspicuous ; there are gene- 
tally some substances dissolved in the water, communi- 
caliug to it peculiar characters, according to the nature of 
the material distilled, and in all instances some gas is 

In the earlier days of chemistry the destructive distil- 
lation of organic substances was considered to effect a 
separation of their component parts ; it was looked upon 
as a means of analysing both vegetable and animal sub- 
stauces. But it was found that the products of the de- 
structive distillation of a substance varied in amount 
according to the heat applied to it, and, consequently, 
when quantitative relations became an important consider- 
ation in chemistry, this opinion was abandoned, and it 
has long since been generally admitted that the alteration 
such substances undergo in destructive distillation is 
greater than a mere separation of pre-existing compo- 
nents, — that it consists in an entire destruction of the 
original substance, with simultaneous production of new- 

This decomposition of an organic substance by heat con- 
sists in a disturbance of the chemical equilibrium upon 
which its existence depends ; the products to which it 
gives rise are substances capable of existing at the higher 
temperature. All organic substances are characterised by 
their liability to decomposition by heat, but they differ 
among each other very much in their capability of sup- 
porting heat, or, in other words, in their liability to de- 
composition under its influence. For every organic sub- 
stance there is a particular range of temperature within 
which its existence is possible and beyond the higher limit 
of which it undergoes decomposition. Hence there is an 
intimate and essential connection between the nature of the 
products and the temperature of the decomposition, and it 
follows that the special nature of the products obtainable 
in destructive distillation differs, according to the tempera- 
ture at which it is conducted, no less than according to 
the material from which they are obtained. These 
features of the decomposition of organic substances by 
heat, were very clearly recognised by Lavoisier ; they re- 
ceived at his hands considerable attention, and though 
they did not occupy a prominent place in the chemical 
phenomena that, in his time, were the object of general 
interest, his works contain important discussions as to the 
causes to which they were referable. 

Prior to the time when Lavoisier wrote on this subject, 
the product of destructive distillation to which — with 
some tew exceptions which I shall afterwards notice — 
most attention was directed, was the oily product. The 
characters of the oil obtained by this means from different 
substances are often described in old chemical works. 
Sometimes it was called tar, that term being applied to 
thote kinds of pyro-oils which were resinous and dried up 
by exposure to air, as in the case of that obtained from 
pine- wood, and which at the present time is still com- 
monly known as tar. Some of these pyro-oils figure as 
medicinal agents in the pharmacopoeia of 1678, and 
amongst othei s the oil of coal — which is described as a fossil 
bitumen, bearing the names of carbo petraj, lithanthrax, 
sea coal, or Newcastle coal — and the direction given is 
that " you may distil it as amber, so shall you have a 
spirit and oil." But this oil of coals soon became a matter 
of more extended observation, in consequence of the at- 
tempts made to use pit coal as fuel in smelting. For a 
long time these attempts were unsuccessful. At length, 
however, a method was found of removing the disadvan- 
tages of coal for smelting purposes. That method, as 
every one knows, was coking. The discovery of this 
method has been ascribed to Becher, who was in England 



about the year 1665, but he says himself that it was a 
German, of the name of Blavesten, who first suggested 
the idea of employing what he called " stone charcoal" 
for smelting iron. In any case the oily product obtained 
from the coal, by heating it in close vessels, attracted the 
attention of Becher, and he put forward a project for 
making tar from coal, apparently in conjunction with the 
production of coke, which is very often referred to in old 
works, but always in very vague terms, and nothing much 
seems to have come of it. 

The German chemist Neumann examined the oily pro- 
ducts of the distillation of coal, and described them in his 
works as consisting of a " thin fluid oil" and another 
" thick pitchy oil." He obtained these by distilling the 
coal of Halle " with a fire gradually increased," and he 
states that " the coal, during the distillation, looked like 
melted pitch." Still these products were not turned to 
any useful purpose. 

However, the coking of coal, or the desulphurizing, as 
it was sometimes called, became an important operation, 
and great interest was excited by it on the Continent. In 
1765, the French Government thought it desirable to send 
a commission to this country, <br the purpose of learning 
the art of coking. An account of their observations is 
given by M. Jars, the brother of one of the commissioners. 
He says : — " The English were the first to attempt render- 
ing coal available for smelting purposes ; the first trials 
are of a very remote date. And, among others, Sweden- 
borg speaks of it as an art which in his time was not fully 
developed. But the industry of the English overcame 
all difficulties, and they succeeded, by means of very 
simple operations, in attaining the desired end, that is to 
say, in depriving pit-coal of the defects which render it 
unfit for smelting." The attempt to turn to account the 
volatile oily products obtained in coking coal was still con- 
tinued, both in this country and on the Continent. At 
Liege, for instance, coal was distilled for oil, and similar 
attempts were made likewise in various parts of England, 
by the Marquis of Rockingham, near Sheffield, by a Dutch- 
man named Van Haak, at Coalbrookdale and Newcastle, 
and by others. 

One of the best known instances of the application of 
these volatile properties of coal, was one carried out in Nas- 
sau, shortly before the year 1768, at some iron works 
belonging to the Priuce of Nassau-Saarbruck, at Sultzbach. 
This plan was described by M. Genssane to the French 
Acade'mie des Sciences, and reported upon by Macquer. 
He says: — " The whole art of the preparation of pit-coal, 
so as to render it fit for smelting, consists in depriving it 
of the bituminous and sulphury substances which render 
it too fat and energetic when it is used in its natural state. 

* * * This principle once established, it is easy to con- 
ceive that it is only by distillation and evaporation that 
these two substances can be separated from the coal." 

The distillation of coal at these works was conducted in 
a kind of close oven, or muffle, heated externally by fur- 
naces. " The fire was got up gradually, until the oven 
became slightly red-hot, and it was then kept at that de- 
gree. * * • iphe h ea t, being gradually communicated 
to the coal within the oven, first of all expelled its bitu- 
minous portion, which distilled off through a pipe, and fell 
into a receiver ; when the coal had given off its bitumen, 
it commenced to become slightly red-hot. 

" The oil and bitumen obtained in this operation almost 
paid the cost of it. * + The pure bitumen was very 
thick and greasy, and equal to the best carriage grease. 

* * The oil did not differ from that obtained by distil- 
ling petroleum , except in being much less readily inflamma- 
ble than the latter, and it could be advantageously em- 
ployed in lamps by the country people. Nothing else was 
used for burning in the mines at Sultzbach." 

MM. Macquer and Montigny, in reporting to the 
Acade'mie on this manufacture, speak highly of its utility, 
and when we consider the extent to which the manufac- 
ture of which this was the first germ, has now grown, it 
appears that their opinion was well founded. 

The next person who made a step in this branch of 
manufacture was Lord Dundonald. The preparation of 
coke appears to have been still the predominating idea, 
but it was also thought that the volatile substances given 
off in this operation might be turned to account, as 
well as the coke. All the previous methods of obtain- 
ing these products consisted in distilling coal in close 
vessels heated externally, but Lord Dundonald's method 
consisted in partially burning the coal in a large chamber 
capable of being entirely closed, and admitting a regu- 
lated supply of air, just sufficient for maintaining the 
combustion of coal at the desired degree. The volatile 
products from the coal passed away through a pipe to a 
condenser, where they were collected. An account of the 
works erected on this plan, at Upper Cranston, is given 
in Sir John Sinclair's " Statistical Account of Scotland." 
The product obtained, besides coke, was a mixture of tar 
and water. This first product was submitted to distilla- 
tion, yielding an oil lighter than water, and a solution of 
ammonia. This tar was sold for greasing cart wheels, at. 
the rate of sixpence per Scotch pint. When the distil- 
lation was continued for 4J days, the residue, remaining 
in the still, was the tar suitable for coaling ships, which 
was regarded as one of the most important of the products. 
When the distillation was continued for 5J days, the resi- 
due in the still was more pitchy ; and after 6£ days it 
was quite brittle. 

Just at the time when Lord Dundonald was carrying 
out his enterprise of coal distilling, the subject of destruc- 
tive distillation was treated of by Bishop Watson, in one 
of his essays. He gives the results obtained by the dis- 
tillation of pit coal, " with a fire gradually augmented," 
and describes one portion of the oil he thus obtained 
from Newcastle coal, as being lighter than water, " more 
or less liquid and transparent, according as the heat used 
in conducting the distillation has been greater or less." 

Another portion of the oil was black, thick, and tena- 
cious, much resembling tar. He also states that, " The 
quality of the liquid separable from wood by distillation 
is wholly the same as that of the liquid separable from pit 
coal by the same means." 

He also adds that " it is probable that the quantity of 
oil separable from the same kind of coal by distillation 
may be influenced in some degree by the manner of per- 
forming the Operation ; and there is, moreover, some 
reason to believe that in different kinds of coal the quan- 
tities may be very various." 

This conjecture was soon supported by results of obser- 
vation. M. Sage, in a paper on coal, published in 1789,. 
describes English cannel coal as yielding " by distillation 
more than one-third of its weight of oil that solidified in 
cooling," while the French coal gave only one-sixteenth of 
its weight of oil. Newcastle coal, though containing " as 
much bitumen as cannel coal," was described by the same 
observer as being very different from it, and Scotch coal,, 
which contained much less bitumen than either of the 
preceding coals, gave by distillation an oil that was liquid. 
and floated on water. 

Kirwan, in 1 796, stated that almost all species of mineral 
coal yield on distillation more or less of both species of 
bitumen— solid and liquid— but that " the proportion is 
variable in every species, according to the degree of heat 
applied." Referring to Lord Dundonald's method of ob- 
taining tar from coal, he says—" By his lordship's mode 
of distillation, however, much seems to be lost during the 
internal combustion. I should think the Prince of Nassau- 
Saarbruck's method in this respect more advantageous. M. 
Sage tells us that by distillation he obtained from cannel 
coal one-third part of its weight of tar." 

It is very interesting to find that Kirwan describes the 
coal used by Lord Dundonald for distillation as being a 
kind of cannel coal, similar to, but of a better sort than, 
the •' stony or slaty cannel coal" from Ayrshire. This 
coal is described as burning like compact cannel coal, 
without caking, and leaving a stony residuum. It con- 
tained 20-83 per cent, of ash. 



Proust also, in 1806, described the oils obtainable from 
coal by distillation : a light oil similar to that of amber, 
and a heavy oil like tar. He says that " the oily pro- 
ducts of coal vary much in consistence, and it is necessary 
always to make an experiment to ascertain if it will yield 
thick oil or tar." 

Lord Dundonald's method of distilling was carried out 
also in France by a M. Faujas de Sainte Fonds, who 
'claimed to have conceived the same idea of obtaining the 
volatile products given off in coking, before knowing of 
Lord Dundonald's plan, although he was confirmed in 
that idea by visiting the tar works in Scotland. Shortly 
after his return to France an experiment was made by 
him, by the order of M. de Calonne, to illustrate the ope- 
ration, and an account of it is given in a scientific journal 
of that time. 

Just at this time, however, a circumstance took place 
which exercised a great influence on the development of 
this young branch of manufacture. The oil manufactured 
by Lord Dundonald was just beginning to be employed for 
street lamps, and it is said that he was in treaty with the 
authorities with a view to the lighting of London by 
means of it, when a new project was started, viz., the use 
- of gas as a source of light, which eventually proved the 

■ overthrow of Lord Dundonald's undertaking. 

The chemistry of gases, or pneumatic chemistry, as it 
was then termed, had, during the latter half of the 18th 
century, gradually absorbed the attention of chemists. As 
far back as 1721, Hales had, in the course of his experi- 
ments on air and its relation to vegetation, observed that 
Newcastle coal yielded in distillation one-third of its 
weight of air. In 1739 Mr. Clayton was induced, by the 
. observation of a natural discharge of combustible gas from 
the neighbourhood of a coal pit, to try the effect of heat 

■ upon coal, and he found that by distillation he obtained a 
similar inflammable gas, together with a black oil and 

-some watery liquid. This spirit of coals, as he called it, 
served him for the amusement of his friends, and for the 
entertainment of the Boyal Society, but for no further 
purpose. In 1759, Neumann stated in his " Chemistry" that 
vegetable substances in general, urged hastily by a strong 
fire, emit an aerial elastic vapour. Bishop Watson also 
refers to the inflammable gas produced in distilling coal, 
etc. He says, " the products obtainable by distillation 
from bituminous and vegetable substances in general are 
water, gas, oils of different colours, weights, consistencies, 
and a black, coaly residuum." It was not, however, until 
shortly after the year 1790 that a Cornish engineer, Mr. 
Murdoch, not only observed that the gas given out by 
heating coal, wood, peat, &c, burnt with a bright luminous 
flame, but also conceived the idea of using the gas thus 
produced as a source of light. A somewhat similar idea 
was about the same time being carried out in France by 
Le Bon, the material from which gas was obtained being 

The announcement of this invention produced a most re- 
markable effect. Notwithstanding energetic opposition to 
its introduction, it rapidly gained ground ; in 1810, the 
first Gas Light and Coke Company was formed, and ten 
years later gas was almost universally used in London. 

Attention was thus suddenly diverted to the gaseous pro- 
■ducts of destructive distillation, as a source of light ; but the 
•oily products were not wholly forgotten, nor did the nature 
of the relations existing between them and the gaseous 
products admit of their being overlooked. Long before 
any great attention had been directed to the gaseous pro- 
ducts of destructive distillation, it had been observed that 
both the quantity and the quality of the oily products ob- 
tained from any "given material depended upon the degree 
of heat employed in the distillation. But when the gas 
produced in the distillation also became an object of in- 
vestigation, and when the means of producing it for practical 
purposes were being developed, it soon became evident 
that, to a great extent, gas and tar or oil were convertible 
substances ; that whenever a great deal of oil was produced 
only a small quantity of gas was obtained. This fact threw 

a new light upon the nature of destructive distillation, 
and since it was a most important desideratum, in regard 
to this new manufacture, to obtain the largest possible 
quantity of gas, the conditions requisite for effecting this 
object were specially investigated at a very early period in 
the history of gas lighting. 

The general result arrived at was, that the production 
of the largest amount of illuminating gas from coal re- 
quired the distillation of the coal to be conducted within 
a certain range of temperature. When the temperature 
was much below an ordinary red heat, a smaller quantity 
of gas was obtained than when the distillation was con- 
ducted at a full cherry-red heat, and at the same time a 
larger quantity of the oily product was obtained. On the 
other hand, when the temperature was much above a full 
cherry-red heat, the quantity of gas was much increased, 
but its illuminating quality was very much reduced. 
Hence a cherry-red heat was fixed upon as the temperature 
to be employed in practice, because that was the temperature 
at which the largest quantity of the volatile products 
were converted into the state of gas of the greatest il- 
luminating power, and at which the smallest quantity of 
those products remained in the iiquid state. 

Accordingly, in practical and scientific works, treating 
of the manufacture of gas and the phenomena of de- 
structive distillation generally, this fact is prominently 
mentioned. Thus, for instance, Accum says : " The pro- 
duction of carburetted hydrogen, both with regard to 
quantity and quality, from the same kind of coal, depends 
much upon the degree of temperature employed in the 
dUtillatory process. If the tar and oil produced during 
the evolution of the gas in its nascent state be made to 
come in contact with the sides of the red-hot retort, or, if 
it be made to pass through an iron cylinder or other vessel 
heated red-hot, a large portion becomes decomposed into 
carburetted hydrogen gas and olefiant gas, and thus a much 
larger quantity of gas is produced than would be obtained 
without sucli precaution, from the same quantity of coal." 
This was rendered still more evident by pointing out that 
eveiy pound of coal tar so decomposed produced " 15 
cubic feet of carburetted hydrogen, abounding in olefiant 

Ure, in 1824, describing the theory and practice of the 
production and use of coal gas, says, " If coal be put into 
a cold retort and slowly exposed to heat, its bitumen is 
merely volatilized in the state of condensible tar ; little 
gas, and that of inferior illuminating power, is produced. 
This distillatory temperature may be estimated at about 
600 degs. or 700 degs. Fahr. 

" If the retort be previously brought to a bright cherry 
red heat, then the coals, the instant after their introduc- 
tion, yield a copious supply of good gas, and a moderate 
quantity of tarry and ammoniacal vapour." 

Dumas, in 1828, describing the general features of de- 
structive distillation, says that the nature of the products 
depends on the temperature employed. "By heating 
gradually, oil is produced, and at a higher temperature no 
oil is obtained, because it cannot exist at the higher 
temperature." Describing the manufacture of gas, he 
adds that the products obtainable from coal by distilla- 
tion are " coke, tar or oil, and gas." The relative quan- 
tities of each of these products are very different, not 
only according to the different kinds of coal, but still 
more according to the temperature at which the decom- 
position is effected. Experience has shown that the 
quantity of oil or tar, as well as that of coke is greater 
when the temperature is low; while these products are 
formed in less proportion when the temperature is high. 
The quantity of gas, on the contrary, is greater at a 
high temperature than at a low temperature, that is to 
say, the more gas is obtained, the less tar is produced. 
It is evident, therefore, that during the operation of gas 
making a suitable temperature must be maintained. If 
it is too low, a large quantity of tar is produced and little 
Hence it is evident, as I have before remarked, that 



though attention was directed chiefly to the produc- 
tion of gas, the other product of destructive distillation, 
viz., the oil, was not forgotten, although it was not the 
desired object of the manufacture. And though gas had 
become the chief object of attention as a fource of light, 
the production of oil, by destructive distillation, was not 
abandoned. So late as 1819, Waterloo-bridge was lighted 
with coal oil, and in the same year M. de Saussure pub- 
lished an account of a method of purifying hydrocarbon 
oil, obtained by the destructive distillation of a bituminous 
mineral found at Travels, in Neufehatel. That method is 
identical with those employed at the present time. But 
it was in 1S33 that the first important impulse was given 
to this manufacture, by the investigations of Reichenbach 
into the chemical nature of the products obtained by the 
destructive distillation of organic substances. Up to that 
time the knowledge of the oily products of destructive 
distillation, in regard to their chemical nature and the 
means by which they might be purified, was very slender. 
It was known that different materials yielded different 
kinds of oily products, and that the quantity obtainable 
varied according to the nature of the material and the tem- 
perature of the distillation. Neumann described the oil 
first drawn in the distillation of organic substances by a fire 
slowly raised, as being commonly fluid and lighter than 
water, while that which followed, at a higher heat, was 
thick and heavy, and that forced out at last, by the 
"greatest vehemence of fire, assumed a pitchy substance." 
Accum described the tar from Newcastle coal as being 
specifically heavier than that produced by cannel coal ; 
hence it sank in water, whereas the latter swam on the 
surface of water. 

The tar obtained in gas-works required to be boiled 
down to give it a sufficient consistence, and render it fit 
for use in coating wood. When this process was con- 
ducted in close vessels, a portion of oil was obtained that 
was commonly known as oil of tar, and by carrying on the 
distillation still further, more oil was obtained and a resi- 
due of pitch. The crude tar gave about 25 per cent, of 
the first-named oil, and by further distillation about 47 
per cent, of pitch. No great use was made of these oils 
however, and, as is still the practice, gas tar was often 
boiled down in an open vessel without attempting to col- 
lect the oil. 

While things stood thus, Beichenbach's first paper ap- 
peared. He referred to the oily products of destructive 
distillation as substances that had hitherto received but 
little attention from chemists, partly in consequence of 
their having been rare, and partly because those that were 
known, possessed characters that prevented their being 
applied to practical purposes ; thus, for instance, their use 
as illuminating materials was prevented by their copious 
production of smoke when burnt; by their too great in- 
flammability or liability to alteration when exposed to the 
air, their offensive smell, and several similar obstacles. 
He therefore considered that a more complete investiga- 
tion of these products was desirable, and the thorough 
practical spirit in which he undertook this investigation is 
apparent throughout his memoirs. 

The first substance which he succeeded in obtaining 
from tar was paraffin. That substance is now too well- 
known to need a repetition of his description of it. I need 
only mention that he described it as existing in tar in con- 
siderable quantities. He pointed out that the application 
of tar as a material for greasing the axles of cart-wheels 
depended upon the presence of this substance in tar, and 
that it was likely to furnish an appropriate material for 
making candles. He showed, also, that its peculiar che- 
mical stability, under the influence of powerful re-agents, 
was such as to suggest various easy means of extracting it 
from tar on a manufacturing scale. He then adds : — " 1 
have here spoken only of the tar of beech-wood ; how- 
ever, it is not only in this, but also in the tar of pine- 
wood, that I have ascertained the existence of paraffin, 
and there is no doubt that it is produced by the distilla- 
tion of aU kinds of wood." Shortly afterwards he obtained 

paraffin by distilling animal substances. This led him to 
the conclusion that paraffin is a product of the carbonisa- 
tion of all organic substances, and he then extended his 
investigation to mineral substances, principally coal. By 
distilling coal in an iron retort, " commencing the distil- 
lation at first with a gentle heat, then gradually raising 
it, till at last the bottom of the retort was made dull red- 
hot, and then cherry red," he obtained an oil containing 
paraffin, and then pronounced paraffin to be a common 
product of all substances of organic origin. 

The next substance which he succeeded in obtaining 
from tar was a liquid oil, to which he gave the name of 
eupion. This oil he also found to be a product of the car- 
bonisation of coal and all organic substances. While 
paraffin was obtained in least amount from the tar of coal, 
the liquid oil was obtained in larger amount from this tar 
than from any other. The oil to which he gave the name 
of eupion does not appear to have been a distinct chemical 
substance, but it was perfectly analogous, if not identical, 
with the hydrocarbon oils now used for burning in lamps, 
except that it was very much more highly refined than 
those oils are in practice. 

Referring to the possible application of this oil, Reichen- 
bach says, " If it should hereafter be possible to separate 
eupion from tar sufficiently cheaply, it is probable that it 
may be applied to useful purposes ; for, since it burns 
brilliantly, without smoke, by means of a wick, it is 
suitable as an illuminating material, not inferior to the 
finest oil ; it does not grease, nor char the wick, nor thicken 
by keeping, nor solidity in the cold. Besides this it is not 
requisite for any applications in which the oil is not ex- 
posed to cold, that the paraffin should bj separated 
from it." 

At the conclusion of his first memoir, Reichenbach ex- 
pressed the hope that the oily substances obtainable by 
destructive distillation might, from a scientific point of 
view, receive more attention than they had hitherto, es- 
pecially since one of them, paraffin, had been ascertained 
to exist in such abundant quantity in tar, to be ca- 
pable of being introduced into industrial economy, and to 
possess characters that would render its extraction easy. 

Just at the very time that Reichenbach discovered 
paraffine, and ascertained that it was a general product of 
destructive distillation, the same substance was obtained 
from the native petroleum of Rangoon by Dr. Christison, 
of Edinburgh. He gave it the name of petroline in the 
first instance, but subsequently recognised it to be the 
same substance as Reichenbach had produced by destruc- 
tive distillation of organic substances and coal. Dr. 
Christison also obtained four different kinds of oil from 
Bangoon petroleum, different in colour, boiling point, &c. 

The most important part of Beicht nbaeh's memoirs 
consists in the very thorough elucidation they give of the 
phenomena of destructive distillation, as regards the oily 
products of that operation. It was to these oily products 
that his attention was exclusively directed, and in the 
incidental notice he had occasion to take of gas making, 
he showed very clearly that the conditions which give 
rise to the production of ga« are very different from, and 
indeed the opposite of, those which determine the forma- 
tion of oily products. 

In describing the general character of tar, or the oily 
product of destructive distillation, he says: — " Tar is not a 
uniform or definite material, but a mixture of various con- 
stituents, which differs according to circumstances. All 
carbonisable substances yield tar, but the tar is of dif- 
ferent kinds, according to the nature of the material it is 
produced from. 

" Moreover, tar varies in its character, according as it is' 
produced under absolute or partial exclusion of air, ac- 
cording as it is produced in one or other kind of vessel ; 
* * * it is one thing when it is produced slowly, and 
another when it is produced rapidly ; it is different at the 
beginning and the end of the carbonisation. When the 
carbonising heat is high, the tar produced is different 
from that produced when the carbonisation is con lucted 



within the limits of a moderate temperature." He showed 
that, as a general rule, the production of tar, consisting of 
oil and paraffin, depends upon the application of a mode- 
rate heat, only just sufficient to carbonise the substance 
operated upon. In treating of the distillation of coal, he 
especially pointed out that this was the condition most es- 
sential for obtaining tar containing oil and paraffin, ihat 
by conducting the distillation of coal so as never to allow 
the retort to become red-hot, he always obtained tar con- 
taining eupion, paraffin, and creosote. This was what he 
termed a " pure tar of carbonisation," and to obtain such 
tar he particularly stated that it should not, at any 
stage of its formation, be exposed to a higher heat than 
that sufficient for carbonisation. The tar produced at a 
high temperature, on the contrary, he showed to be en 
tirely different in ts nature, whether obtained from coal 
or any other material. In the first place, it did not yield 
by re-distillation, more than half as much oil as pure tar, 
and it contained substances which were never present in 
pure tar obtained at a low temperature. These substances 
were naphthalin, pitch, and soot, and the tar obtained 
;from coal in the manufacture of gas was found to be of 
■this kind ; it was not a pure tar of carbonisation, but an 
.impure mixture. The circumstances which gave rise to 
tkis great difference between the tar obtained at different 
^temperatures were ascertained and very clearly described. 
It was shown that naphthalin was not a product of car- 
bonization; that while mere carbonization yielded only 
oily products, napi.thalin was produced by the further 
decomposition of those products under the influence of a 
higher temperature — that it was a secondary product — and 
it was shown that the operation of gas-making did not 
admit of simple carbonization, since a bright red heat was 
necessary for producing gas. For this reason the tar of 
gas-works was black and thick and contained naphthalin, 
because the oil vapours, produced from the coal in the 
first instance, came in contact with the sides of the red- 
hot retort and were thereby decomposed. 

Considerable prominence was given to this important 

which these products might be turned as a source of light 
both by burning in lamps and making gas. 

Very shortly after this M. Laurent, who had visited the 
neighbi urhood of Autun and suggested the manufacture of 
these oils, published an account of an English sciiist t!>at 
had been sent him for examination and which he found to 
yield 20 per cent, of oil by distillation at a low temper- 
ature, finally raised to a red heat. In 1833, a patent was 
taken out in thi3 country by Richard Butler for the manu- 
facture of oil and gas, from bituminous shale, which con- 
sisted in an application of the results obtained by Reichen- 
bach, and of the principles he had laid down with regard 
to destructive distillation. The specification of this pa- 
tent is interesting from its containing the earliest mention 
of paraffin, as the product of a manufacturing operation. 
It is stated that the less volatile portion of the oil, obtained 
by distillation below a red heat, contained a white colour- 
less substance— a compound of carbon and hydrogen, 
which separated in small flakes when the oil was cooled. 
The claim in this specification is for " the production of 
oils, by distillation or carbonization, from bituminous 
schistus or shale, and slate, not including slate coal and 
bituminous sandstone ; " and for " the production of gas 
for illuminating purposes from such oils, or direct from 
the bituminous schistus or shale, and slate, &c." For 
the direct production of gas it is directed that " the re- 
torts should immediately be brought to a red heat," while 
on the contrary, the heat was to be gradually applied 
when the object was to obtain oil in the place of gas. It 
is interesting hero to notice, that the main principle of 
distillation at a low temperature for the purpose of ob- 
taining oils, was fully recognised and applied in the me- 
thod proposed by Butler, as well as in all subsequent propo- 
sals in reference to this manufacture, still the influence of 
Dumas' authority was recognizably exercised, in this in- 
stance, in regard to the exclusion of coal. This, the patentee 
states, was not to be used because it yielded tar containing 
naphthalin. That influence is recognizable even at a 
later period, notwithstanding the fact that in 1835, 

difference between the tar produced from coal, at high Dumas had quoted Reichenbach's results as being cintra 

and low temperatures, in consequence of an opinion ex- 
pressed by Dumas that naphthalin was a direct product of 
the distillation of coal, and of the conjecture founded on 
'that opinion that naphthalin existed in coal. This led 
to the repetition of Reichenbach's experiments, and to 
the publication of a memoir in which lie satisfactorily 
showed that coal did not contain naphthalin, and that coal 
tar did not contain it unless it had been submitted to a 
high temperature and partially decomposed. Reichen- 
bach showed, moreover, that naphthalin was obtainable in 
like manner from the tar of wood, from alcohol, ether, 
naphtha, and probably even from defiant gas by exposing 
these substances to a bright red heat. The accuracy of 
<hese observations was recognised by Dumas, who quoted 
them in his treatise. The general results of these inves- 
tigations were, that the production of ojly substances by 
-destructive distillation was essentially dependent upon 
the application of a moderate degree of heat ; that the 
■ constant products of this operation were eupion and 
.paraffin, together with some others that have not yet 
ijbeen turned to account. 

Attempts were soon made to apply the knowledge thus 
•obtained for practical purposes. Materials were sougW 
for that would yield oil and paraffin in sufficient quantity 
to admit of their being worked. The ordinary coal, then 
in general use, yielded too little of these products, and 
the first material to which attention was directed 
was bituminous schist or shale. A varietv of this 
mineral occurring at Vouvant, between Nantes and 
Rochelle, was examined by Dumas, and found to yield 
14 per cent, of oil, and works were established about 
the year 1830 for the purpose of manufacturing oil 
from it by M. Selliguc. The crude oil obtained from it is 
described by Dumas as being greenish-brown and solidify- 
ing when cooled in consequence of containing 2 or 3 per 
cent, of paraffin. He also pointed out the applications to 

dictory of the opinion he had formerly expressed, that 
naphthalin either existed in coal, or was a product of its 
distillation. It is worth remark, also, that it is uncer- 
tain to whom this opinion is due, for M. Dumas, in 1832, 
ascribes it to Laurent, while Laurent writing at the 
same time ascribes it to Dumas, and Oppermann, also at 
the same time, says that Reichenbach has decisively proved 
that naphthalin is produced only by the destruction of the 
oils by a high degree of heat. 

Another patent for a method of effecting the same object 
was taken out in 1831 by Mollerat. 

In 1841, a patent was taken out by Hompesh for " im- 
provements in obtaining oils and other products from 
bituminous matters, and in purifying and rectifying oils 
obtained from such matters. The "objects of these improve- 
ments were to obtain a larger quantity of oil, and to im- 
prove its quality by removing or greatly modifying the 
disagreeable smell. The former object was sought to be 
obtained by a special arrangement devised for very gra- 
dually increasing the heat in the distillation of the shale 
and consequently preventing the decomposition of the oil 
vapour produced. The means of attaining the second 
object consisted merely in an amplification of the method 
already made known by de Saussure for the purification of 
hydrocarbon oils. 

Another patent was obtained in 1845 by Du Buisson, 
for "New and improved methods for the distillation of 
bituminous schist and other bituminous substances, as well 
as for the purification, rectification, and preparation ne- 
cessary for the employment of the productions obtained 
by such distillation for various useful purposes." In his 
specification he says, that though many attempts had 
been made in England to render bituminous shale useful, 
they had all failed, while the most important results had 
been obtained at the works near Autun. His method of 
treatment consisted in a further application of the principle 



of distillation at a low temperature, so as to obtain the 
largest yield of oily products, and to prevent their decom- 
position into gas by the influence of too high a tempera- 
ture on this vapour. He proposed to effect this by intro- 
ducing into the retorts, steam heated by passing it through 
red-hot pipes, so as to sweep out the oil vapours, and at 
the same time to admit of the distillation being completed 
at the lowest possible temperature. The retorts were to 
be heated externally as before, but the steam introduced 
was not under pressure, so that while equalizing the tem- 
perature of the shale under distillation, and acting me- 
chanically in removing the oil vapours it also kept the 
temperature from rising so high as to convert them into 

About the year 1845, works were erected at Beul, on 
the Bhine, for the manufacture of oils and paraffin from 
a mineral that occurs there. It is an imperfect coal, gene- 
rally known by the name of " brown eoal." These works 
have been in operation since that time to the present. 

In speaking of the practical applications of the products 
of destructive distillation, I must not omit to mention the 
patent obtained by Mr. Mansfield, in 1847, for " An im- 
provement in the manufacture and purification of spirituous 
substances and oils, applicable to the purposes of artificial 
light, and various useful arts, and in the, application thereof 
to such purposes, and in the construction of lamps and 
burners applicable to the combustion of such substances." 
This is described in the specification to consist — 

1st. In methods of separating the oils and spirituous 
substances contained in tar, or oils distilled from any kind 
of coal, either in the manufacture of gas, or by any other 
process of destructive distillation of coal. 

2nd. In methods of purifying volatile bituminous oils 
found native, or produced by destructive distillation. 

3rd. An improved application of the products, thus ob- 
tained and purified, to the purposes of artificial illumina- 
tion, by reducing the proportion of carbon in the flame 
produced by burning them. 

The method adopted by Mr. Mansfield for separating 
the constituents of tar, was to collect, in fractional portions, 
the oil distilled off at different temperatures. The puri- 
fication of the products thus obtained was to be effected 
much in the same manner as that described by De Saus- 
sure, by Beichenbach, and in the specifications already men- 
tioned. The reduction of the proportion of carbon in the 
flame of the oils from tar, was effected either by mixing 
them with other combustible liquids containing a smaller 
amount of carbon and more oxygen, or by mixing them 
with a gas containing le-ss carbon, or none at all, such as 
carbonic oxide, or atmospheric air. For this latter purpose 
the most volatile portions of the oils obtained from tar 
were employed. 

Further attempts were made in this country to work 
the bituminous shale of Kimmeridge and Wareham, and 
also to manufacture oil from peat, under a patent obtained 
by M. Beece in 1848, but no results of any advantageous 
nature were obtained in either case. 

The cause of these failures to establish in this country 
the manufacture of the products which had been found 
profitable on the Continent, was twofold. In the first 
place, the general introduction of gas lighting limited the 
possible demand there might otherwise have been for an 
improved illuminating material ; and, in the second place, 
the materials operated upon yielded the oil in such small 
proportion, and, frequently, of such an offensive character, 
that it was found impossible to introduce it into use for 
lamps, or to manufacture it profitably for other purposes. 

But, on the Continent, the oil-yielding materials worked 
there, though not much more productive than those in 
this country, furnished oil of a le?s objectionable character, 
and more easily purified. Moreover, as gas was little 
used, there was a wider field for the introduction of this 
oil as an illuminating material. It rapidly came into use, 
and several manufactories were established for its pro- 
duction in various parts of Germany. It was there that 

the manufacture was perfected, and that the demand for 
these products of distillation was first established. 

The next step in order of time was in the year 1850, 
when a patent was obtained by Mr. W. B. Stones for "Im- 
provements in treating peat and other carbonaceous 
and ligneous matters so as to obtain products therefrom." 
These improvements are described in the specification to 
consist in distilling " shale, stone-coal, cannel coal, and 
other coals, petroleum, asphaltum, &c," so as to extract 
from them oil and paraffine, and in methods of separating 
and purifying these substances. The distillation was to 
be effected in closed vessels, not heated externally, but 
by means of steam heated to a sufficient temperature 
to carry off the products in a state of vapour. Shortly 
afterwards, in the same year, a patent was obtained by 
Mr. James Young, for " Improvements in the treatment 
of certain bituminous mineral substances, and in obtaining 
paraffin therefrom." These improvements are described 
in the specification to consist in gradually heating the 
coal up to a low red heat, at which it is to be kept until 
volatile products cease to come off, care being taken to 
keep the temperature from rising above that of a low red 
heat, to prevent as much as possible the desired products 
of the process being converted into permanent gas. The 
product so obtained was described as oil containing 
paraffin, and was hence called paraffin oil. Methods of 
separating this product into various useful commodities, 
and of purifying them, were also described in the specifi- 

In the Exhibition of 1851, specimens of paraffin and 
other products obtained by the distillation of peat, shale, 
coal, and bitumen, were exhibited, and in the JuryBeport 
it is stated that " the condensible products from the dis- 
tillation of coal and other bituminous products are becom- 
ing every day more important," the value of these pro- 
ducts for lubricating purposes being especially pointed out. 
At that time the only hydrocarbon oil used in this 
country as an illuminating material was camphine — a very 
highly refined spirit of turpentine. Though the hydrocarbon 
oils obtained by destructive distillation were largely used 
on the Continent for burning in lamps, they had not 
come into use for that purpose here, and were not so used 
until several years afterwards. But success had been at- 
tained in the application of hydrocarbon oils from another 
source and in a different direction. The intimate con- 
nection and similarity between the oily products of destruc- 
tive distillation, and mineral oils, such as petroleum, 
found in many places, had long been recognized in a general 
way, and was described in most chemical woiks. 

Dr. Christison had shown that this resemblance ex- 
tended beyond the mere outward character of theso 
materials by the extraction of paraffin and various 
oils from the petroleum of Bangoon, and various other 
chemists had added to the knowledge of these native oils. 
In 1847, about the time Mansfield's patent was taken 
out, petroleum was» discovered in a coal mine in Derby- 
shire, and Dr. Lyon Playfair drew the attention of Mr. 
James Young to it, the consequence of which was that he 
took a lease of the petroleum spring in conjunction with 
Mr. Meldum, and established a manufacture of lubri- 
cating oil from this material. This was the first success- 
ful application in this country of hydrocarbon oils, and 
the first instance of the realization, in this country, of 
Beichenbach's prediction that these materials would be- 
come useful as soon as they could be obtained in adequate 
quantities and at a sufficiently low cost. 

I have already referred to the small quantity of oil 
yielded by the bituminous shales, as having been one of 
the main causes of failure in the attempt to establish the 
manufacture of hydro-carbon oils, and, as the respective 
capabilities of various materials in this particular, is still 
one of the most important circumstances connected with 
their application, it is desirable to refer to this point more 

The different varieties of bituminous minerals, including 
bitumens, shale, and coal of all kinds, vary very con- 



siderably in the amount of volatilisable substance they 
yield when heated in a close vessel. This character is 
one in which these minerals present greater differences 

than in any other. Even in the case of coal the differences 
are considerable. The results obtained in gas making may 
be taken as an indication of this fact. 


deep main. 



















1,077 1 710 
473 749 

Volatile-] Tar 

600 7f>0 

( Water & loss. 

■ 1,163 





It is evident from this table that the bituminous por- 
tions of different coals differ very much in regard to the 
amount of volatilisable substances they are capable of yield- 
ing by distillation. But this difference is greater than it ap- 
pears to be from the above table, on account of the differ- 
ences in the amount of ash contained in coal. Boghead 
contains 22 per cent., Newcastle only 3 per cent., and 
when this is deducted, the true relation between the 
volatilisable and fixed portion of the bituminous part of 
the coal becomes apparent. 

Fixed carbon.. 


Then comparing the amount of oil produced from coal 
by distillation at high and low temperatures, it appears 
that the differences in this respect are not by any means 
so important as the differences between the amounts of 
oil from different materials. 

Newcastle Goal. 

i Boghead 



red heat. 

red heat. 

red heat. 

red heat. 










Water & Loss ... 


It is not only in regard to the quantity of oily product 
obtainable by destructive distillation that there are differ- 
ences between bituminous minerals. The nature of the 
products so obtained is also very different. The oil ob- 
tained by distilling Newcastle coal is very different in its 
characters from that obtained by the similar treatment of 
the better kinds of cannel coal, bituminous shale, brown 
coal, &c. 

It was, therefore, a very fortunate circumstance that, just 
at the period when the use of hydrocarbon oils for lubri- 
cating purposes was becoming established in this country, 
a new material was discovered at Boghead, near Edin- 
burgh, which possessed, in a most remarkable, and then 
unparalleled degree, the capability of yielding, in great 
abundance, oil of 6uch a nature as to be suitable for this 
manufacture. The discovery of this mineral just at this 
lime was rendered more especially important from the 
circumstance that while the application of hydrocarbon 

oils was extending, the petroleum spring which was, in 
this country, the only source of these oils, was rapidly 
becoming exhausted. The ordinary kind of bituminous 
shale had been found unsuited for the purpose, and the 
manufacture was for some time likely to cease, when the 
discovery of this new mineral entirely altered the 
prospects of the manufacture. Works were established 
near the place where it was found, and the production of 
oil was soon carried out extensively. After a few years 
it was introduced, in this country, as an illuminating 
material, and since the year 1858 its use for that purpose 
has become very general. 

About the year 1853, the manufacture of hydrocarbon 
oils and paraffin from Rangoon petroleum was commenced, 
and the burning oil obtained from it, and sold under the 
name of Belmontine, was the best oil of this kind yet 
manufactured. It was, however, high-priced, and the in- 
troduction of American petroleum appears to have caused 
it to disappear. 

The superior excellence of the Boghead mineral, above 
all others, as an oil-yielding material, led to its being 
largely exported for the manufacture of oils, not only to 
the Continent but also to America, and for a time it was 
almost the only material used for the purpose. In 
America, however, other oil-yielding materials were soon 
afterwards discovered, which, if not equal to that of Bog- 
he a I, were sufficiently productive to be worked there in 
its place, and not long after these materials had been in 
use the copious sources of native petroleum in various 
parts of America were discovered. This discovery has 
within the last two years produced a wonderful extension 
in the use of hydrocarbon oils, but, although, according to 
the latest accounts, the importation of petroleum into 
Liverpool during the last four months amounted to 
2,000,000 gallons, more than twenty times as much as 
was imported during the same period in 1862, still the 
supply is not in excess of the demand, and the production 
of hydrocarbon oils by destructive distillation has not 
been stopped by the supply derived from this novel source. 

The other products of destructive distillation are, for 
the most part, merely accessory products, and therefore 
do not require any special consideration. Among them 
are acetic acid, creosote, and wood naphtha, obtained in 
the manufacture of wood charcoal. Ammonia is produced, 
in the manufacture of illuminating gas, in small amount, 
but in such considerable gross quantity, that this has long 
been the only source of ammonia and its salts, which are 
now so much more largely consumed than formerly, both 
as manures and in chemical manufactures. The oil 
known as "dead, oil," and sometimes as "creosote," 
though different from the creosote of wood, is largely em- 
ployed as a preservative of timber. The naphtha ex- 
tracted from the coal-tar of gas works, in preparing this 
" dead oil," was formerly much used in the manufacture 
of waterproof cloth, but has now found a more profitable 
application in the production of the brilliant dyes that 
have lately been introduced under the names of mauve, 



magenta, &c. The technical history of these dyes has 
lately been so ably described before the Society, that I 
can do no more than name these important materials, as 
being essentially products of destructive distillation, to 
illustrate the importance of this comparatively new art. 

There is, however, one point with regard to the intro- 
duction of these dyes to which I cannot omit to refer. 
The immediate source from which these dyes are derived 
is a substance called aniline. This substance has been 
known to chemists for upwards of thirty years, and has 
been the subject of several elaborate investigations. It 
was first obtained from coal-tar. But though aniline was 
well known to chemists, and though another of its early 
sources was, singularly enough, indigo, no idea seems to 
have been entertained of its becoming of industrial value, 
or of its capability of yielding dye substances. It was 
indeed an extremely rare substance, and prior to 1854 
was obtainable only in very small quantities. In the 
course of that year, however, M. Bechamp, a French che- 
mist, ascertained that a substance derived from the light 
naphtha of coal-gas tar, was capable of being converted 
into aniline by a very easy operation. This circumstance, 
affording the means of obtaining aniline abundantly, to- 
gether with the scientific interest that aniline had been 
shown by Dr. Hofmann to possess, appears to have led 
him, and other chemists, to make it the subject of their 
study. In the course of these investigations, it was ob- 
served, by Dr. Natanson in 1856, that a yellowish-red 
substance was obtainable from aniline by the action of 
elayl chloride. This substance does not appear to have 
been susceptible of application as a dye, nor the observa- 
tion to have been regarded as having any practical signifi- 
cance. In the same year, however, Mr. Perkin, one of 
Dr. Hofmann's pupils, also studying the chemistry of 
aniline, happened to obtain from it a product possessing a 
rich violet or purple colour, which he soon found appli- 
cable in dyeing, and for the preparation of which he 
took out a patent shortly afterwards. 

In 1858, Dr. Hofmann observed that by the action of 
a carbon chloride on aniline, a magnificent crimson- 
coloured substance was produced, but no reference was 
made to its technical applications. These two observa- 
tions were the starting-points of the aniline dye manu- 
facture, which has now acquired such gigantic proportions. 

My object, in thus tracing the origin and history of this 
industry, is, by comparing it with the history and origin 
of the other industiial arts, connected with destructive 
distillation, to illustrate the progress that has taken place 
in the application of science to arts, and the advantages 
resulting from the increased facilities now existing for that 
application. Six years ago, it was first observed that a 
dye could be prepared from aniline. Six years ago aniline 
was a curiosity, unknown to any but those familiar with 
the more abstruse departments of chemistry. Now, in 
consequence of that observation, it is made by tons. 

Tne case is very different with the hydro-carbon oils 
that are now so largely used as a source of light. To go 
no further back than the date of Reichenbach's elucidation 
of the nature of the substances produced by destructive 
distillation, of the conditions under which they were ob- 
tained, and of the uses to which they might be applied, it 
appears that the results which he obtained and placed at 
the disposal of all, slept unproductively and unused for near 
20 years after that time ; and for some three parts of a 
century since the same materials were used, in a crude 
condition, for lighting the mines of Sultzbach. It is true, 
the absence of a material that would furnish the oil and 
the paraffin in sufficient abundance, may have been one 
reason why the results of Keichenbach's researches were 
not sooner turned to useful account, in the way he sug- 
gested. But in the case of coal gas there was no such 
obstacle. Coal was everywhere used, and abundant. The 
fact that illuminating gas was obtainable in large quantity 
from coal by distillation, was known as far back as 1739, 
at least, but, for upwards of 50 years, no one conceived the 
idea of using that gas as a source of light. I believe the 

most important obstacles to the earlier application of these 
facts to hive consisted, partly in the want of sufficient appre- 
ciation of scientific results by manufacturers generally, and 
partly, perhaps to a greater extent, in the tendency of che- 
mists, according to the fashion of that time, to regard the re- 
sults of research too exclusively iu an abstract light, and as 
curiosities for the entertainment of a privileged few. This 
fashion is fortunately antiquated, if it be not extinct, and 
the rapidity with which the acquisitions of science now pass 
into the wider sphere of practical application, affords good 
ground for the conclusion that the more intimate relation 
existing between practice and science is both wholesome 
and beneficial. 


Mr. Went worth L. Scott (responding to the invitation 
of the Chairman) said he believed, as regarded the de- 
structive distillation of coal, Boyle was the first to hint at 
the existence of spirit in coal. In the statistical part of 
the paper, it was stated that during the last four months 
of the present year the importation of petroleum oil from 
America amounted to two million gallons. He believed 
those figures fell considerably short of the actual amount 
imported. According to the returns of Mr. Wormald, of 
Liverpool, the quantity imported during the whole year 
of 1861 was 1,492,473 gallons, and in 1862, 10,625,568 
gallons. He, therefore, thought there was some error in 
the figures given in the paper, and he believed the 
quantity of petroleum oil imported during the last 
four months was double that stated. Mr. Paul had 
alluded to Charles Mansfield, who might be regarded 
as a martyr to the new science of destructive distillation, 
but it might be further remarked that he was the first 
person to propose what was now called the carburation of 
gas to increase its illuminating qualities. The proposed 
cylinders or vessels, through which the gas passed, were 
filled with small portions of pumice-stone or other 
porous material soaked with benzole; and the question 
had been raised whether some recent patents had not been 
invalidated by Mansfield. Looking at the comprehensive 
title of the paper he (Mr. Scott) confessed to a slight 
feeling of disappointment that it had not given some 
indication of what might probably be done in future, 
not only in the distillation of coal, but also of other 
organic substances. Waste products had been a 
favourite subject amongst many members of the So- 
ciety, though they had been treated of as yet in an im- 
perfect manner; both as to coal, and animal and 
vegetable products, of which imperfect use was now made, 
the whole question was yet in its infancy. Although the 
effects of different temperatures upon the same, and dif- 
ferent descriptions of coal, had been stated in a general 
way, it was very important that the results of these va- 
rious experiments should be carefully tabulated, and also 
that the effect of distilling coal mixed with other sub- 
stances of a similar nature in different atmospheres should 
be investigated. He might mention, that on examining 
some shale from Ireland, with a view to its commercial 
utilization, and also another material more closely resem- 
bling coal, he found that when distilled separately they 
had something of the same properties as shale or'coal of bad 
quality, but when mixed together, the products were dif- 
ferent and more valuable. The effect of the mixture of coal 
and shale was very remarkable. Then, again, there were 
many instances in manufactures in which what might be 
called destructive distillation was carried on in such a 
manner that the products were entirely wasted, as was 
illustrated in the ordinary mode of burning bricks in an 
open kiln. The products in that operation were peculiar, 
differing from many others, and might be collected with 
great advantage. Other products of a different character 
were also worth attention. The refuse of towns, under 
destructive distillation, if arrangements for conducting the 
process could be cheaply effected, would afford a great 
source of profit. 



The Chairman said, in the absence of further remarks 
upon this subject, it became his agreeable duty to move 
that the thanks of the meeting be given to Mr. Paul, to 
whom they were much indebted for the excellent paper 
with which he had favoured them. It was generally the 
endeavour of the Council that gentlemen occupying the 
position he had to sustain this evening should be con- 
versant with the particular subject brought before the 
meeting, but, unfortunately, his friend Mr. Hawes, who 
was to have presided on this occasion, was prevented by 
illness from doing so. The subject generally was one with 
which he (the Chairman) was not familiar, but there was 
one portion of it in which he felt a special interest, viz., 
the manufacture of gas from coal. He could, from per- 
sonal recollection, follow Mr. Paul in his history of the 
introduction of that important manufacture. He 1 ecollected 
the state of London forty or fifty years ago, when the 
streets were lighted with bad oil lamps, and afterwards, 
when the late Lord Dundonald introduced that important 
modification which Mr. Paul had referred to, and 
which for some time, though only for a short period, 
seemed likely to be a profitable investment of his 
talent and capital. Unfortunately for his lord- 
ship, but fortunately for the public at large, the ap- 
plication of coal gas was discovered, with what ex- 
traordinary results they all knew. Having referred to 
the excitement which was occasioned by the exhibition 
of the first experiments in street lighting by gas in Pall- 
mall, and at a chemist's at the corner of the Albany, in 
Piccadilly, the Chairman went on to remark that he had 
been for many years connected, as a director, with a gas 
company in this country which supplied six places in 
France ; he therefore felt considerable interest in the por- 
tion of the paper which referred to that subject. A few 
weeks since Professor Ansted read a very able paper before 
this Society, in which he drew attention to many materials 
out of which gas might be produced ; but it did not fall 
within the province of Mr. Paul to go much into detailon 
that part of the subject. With respect to the introduction 
of gas into France, it seemed singular, considering the 
large number of eminent chemists there, that they should 
have allowed a company in this country to invest capital 
for the purpose of supplying gas to towns in France; but 
so it was, and he was happy to say that it was not a bad 
investment. How far the existing vested interests in gas 
were likely to be interfered with by new discoveries in 
the production of artificial light, it was impossible for him 
to say. He did, however, know that scientific men had 
directed their attention to that subject, and he had a strong 
disposition to believe that some of them were likely to 
succeed. He had recently been present at some striking 
exj>eriments in this direction, and as far as he was able to 
judge from what he then saw, and from the opinion 
of more competent authorities, it would seem as if they 
were on the eve of some very important discoveries 
in connection with artificial lighting. There had also 
been another element of disturbance recently introduced 
— he alluded to the electric light — which was now being 
experimented upon for lighthouse purposes at Dungeness, 
and the success of which seemed highly probable. These 
were questions which time alone would solve, but he 
thought it was only fair to expect that the electric light, j 
which obviously possessed great advantages, might sooner 
or later be a very valuable addition to the many other ! 
sources of artificial light. With respect to the paper read 
this evening, he was sure all would agree that it contained 
interesting matter, and they must feel indebted to Mr. 
Paul for the able and elaborate way in which he had 
brought before them the results of the investigations he 
had made into the whole subject, and he (the Chairman) 
was quite sure the meeting would allow him in their ' 
name to present their thanks to Mr. Paul for his paper. 

The vote of thanks having been passed, 

Mr. Paul, in acknowledging the compliment paid to him, 
said with regard to the quantities of petroleum oil imported 
into this country, his figures were based upon the authority 

of Mr. Maerea, who was largely engaged in that trade. 
Beyond that he could not vouch for the accuracy of the 
figures, and he stood corrected in that respect. With 
regard to the application of distillation to waste products, 
he had purposely avoided entering into that subject, 
because it was an open question. A great many waste 
products had been .tried, but no results had ever been arrived 
at which he considered justified the treatment of the 
subject before this Society. Spent tan had been frequently 
tried, and, in one instance, on a large scale, for the pur- 
pose of making gas, charcoal, and other products, but no 
satisfactory results had been obtained from it, and for 
that reason he had avoided referring to it. With regard 
to the remarks of the Chairman as to the improvements 
that were likely to take place in the production of gas 
from coal and other materials, he quite agreed with that 
gentleman in the anticipation that very great improve- 
ments would be effected, and he did so from a very strong 
conviction that the present manufacture of gas, though 
very successtul, was carried on in a way that was defective, 
and was capable of advantageous modification. The mate- 
rial used was abundant, and one of the products, coke, 
was eo valuable tliat the manufacture of gas might even be 
looked upon as subordinate to it, and there was not so 
much attention paid to the quality of the gas as would be 
the case if it were of more exclusive importance in the 
manufacture. The use of petroleum oil as a gas-pro- 
ducing material was likely to be adopted. In Canada 
it was already largely used as a source of gas, and 
very probably in the same way that the richer cannel 
coal, that a few years ago was looked upon with aversion 
by the gas manufacturer, had now become one of the most 
important materials in the production of that article — so 
petroleum, he had no doubt, would soon obtain importance 
in the manufacture of gas ; and if so, the road to improve- 
ment in quality would be more easy than it was at pre- 
sent, when gas was produced from coal. 

The Secretary announced that on Wednes- 
day evening next, the 3rd of June, an Extra 
Meeting would be held, when a paper by Mr. 
William Hawes, " On the Results of the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1862," would be read. 
On this evening His Royal Highness the Duke 
of Cambridge, K.G., will preside. On this occa- 
sion members will only introduce one friend. 


The distribution of prizes and certificates in the de- 
partment of Evening Classes, in connection with King's 
College, took place on the 20th instant, under the presi- 
dency of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

The Rev. Dr. Jelf opened the proceedings. 

The Rev. E. H. Plumptre, the Dean of the College, said 
the Evening Classes were established in 1855. Their object 
was to meet the wants of 3'oung men in the offices and 
warehouses of this great City, who desired to spend their 
leisure hours in improving their minds and strengthen- 
ing their character. The class opened with only five 
matriculated stadents^increased to seven and fifteen in 
the two following years. At the end of the three years 
they determined to admit them to the privileges of the 
College, and in 1858 the number of matriculated students 
rose to 104, but 6ince then there had been a slight de- 
flection in the number. On the other hand, there were 
the non-matriculated students. They began with 177 of 
those students, and in the years following the numbers 
were respectively 177, 147, 328, 445, and 555 ; but last 
winter there was a downward tendency, in consequence of 
the general commercial depression, the number being 523. 
Altogether, however, the number of students attending 
the evening classes last winter was 604, and they included 
members whose ages varied from 14 to 45, and even 50. 



After specifying the different branches of knowledge 
taught, the rev. gentleman said that an important feature 
of the classes introduced this session was— that schools, 
with a large number of students, were allowed to enter 
and form a separate class, and to have special examina- 
tions. Of this privilege, Dr. Yeats, of the Upper and 
Middle Schools at Peckham, had availed himself, and as 
the result he would have the pleasure of introducing, for 
a certificate of honour, Mr. Edward M'Dermott, one of 
that gentleman's pupils, who had earned that mark of 
distinction in the division of " the principles of com- 

The Chakoellob of the Exchequer then proceeded 
to deliver the prizes and certificates to the successful com- 
petitors, addressing a few appropriate words of encourage- 
ment to each. 

The following are the names of those to whom prizes 
and certificates of honour were awarded. Prizes and cer- 
tificates of honour are of equal value, and are given to 
the student who stands first in the examination for each 
subject, provided he has gained at least three-fourths of 
the full number of marks. Those who received certificates 
of merit are omitted for want of space ; these are given 
to all students who gain in the examination for each sub- 
ject, at least three-filths of the full number of marks : — 

Divinity : — • Henry William Atkinson, certificate of 
honour ; Edward Stainton, prize ; William David Ground, 
prize ; William Farren, certificate of honour ; George 
Galliers, prize. Latin :— George Galliers, prize ; Henry 
William Atkinson, prize ; Joseph Heptinstall Marshall, 
prize ; George Butler, prize ; James Golding, prize. 
Greek: — George Galliers, prize; James Bower, prize; 
Henry William Atkinson, prize ; James Golding, prize. 
French : — Frank Bretherton, prize ; James Robert Cole, 
prize ; Francis Medland Phillips, prize ; James Brether- 
ton, certificate of honour ; James Bower, prize ; Frederick 
Heather, prize ; Henry Wicks, prize. German : — Edward 
George Pearse, prize ; Samuel B. Flaxman, prize; Henry 
Temple, prize ; Thomas Adams Phillips, prize. Italian : 
— Edward Forbes Gaitskell, prize ; Horace Hope Blox- 
ham, prize. Spanish: — Llandalf Watson and Edward 
George, certificates of honour ; Francis Medland Phillips, 
certificate of honour. English Literature : — George 
Butler, certificate of honour. English Composition : — 
George Galliers, prize ; James Kirkwood, certificate of 
honour. Grammar and Composition : — William Honey, 
prize ; Henry King, prize. History : — Walter Miller 
Taylor, prize. Geography: — Thomas William Green, 
prize. Mathematics : — Carlon John Lambert, prize ; 
Frederick Joshua Whitworth, prize ; William James 
Wood, certificate of honour; Edward Stainton, prize; 
James Bower, prize. Aritlimetic and Book-keeping: — 
Stephen Henry Emincns, certificate of honour. The 
Principles of Commerce: — Llandaff Watson, prize, " On 
the best means of improving mercantile morals ; " Fred- 
erick William Groves, prize; Edwaid M'Dermott, certi- 
ficate of honour. Writing: — George Flack, prize. Chy- 
mistry : — Stephen Henry Emmens, prize. Mechanics ; — 
William Fernie, prize." Experimental Physics: — John 
Simonet Scott, prize. Political Economy : — Joseph Hep- 
tinstall Marshall, prize. Logic:— Thomas de Courey 
Atkins, certificate of honour ; James Russell Tunks, prize. 
Physiology : — Robert Shakell Knight, prize. Drawing: 
— Arthur Debenham, prize. Botany: — Lewis Angell, 
certificate of merit. Zoology :— Arthur Pye Smith, cer- 
tificate of merit ; John Simonet Scott, certificate of merit ; 
George Butler, certificate of merit. 

Prizes to the five students who gained the highest 
aggregate number of marks in all the subjects respectively 
brought up for examination : — George Galliers, Divinity, 
Latin, Greek, English, History ; Joseph H. Marshall, 
Divinity, Latin, Greek, Physiology, Political Economy ; 
Francis* M. Phillips, Divinity, French, Greek, German, 
Spanish ; James Bower, Divinity, Latin, Greek, French, 
Mathematics; Thomas W. Green, Latin, German, Geo- 
graphy, Physics. 

At the conclusion of the ceremony, 
Dr. Jelf expressed his thanks to the Kev. Mr. Plumptre 
and other professors and teachers who had assisted i« con- 
ducting the classes. 

On the motion of the Bishop of Lichfield, who was 
formerly Principal of King's College, seconded by Sir 
Thomas Phillips, a vot e of thanks was passed by acclama- 
tion to the Chancellor of the Exchequer for his kindness 
in officiating on that occasion. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer said : — My Lord 
Bisliop, ladies, and gentlemen, if it indeed were true that 
1 have conferred upon you any remarkable favour by my 
presence, and by my share in the proceedings of this 
evening, I should have received much more than an ade- 
quate reward in the kind and cordial manner in which I 
have been welcomed among you ; but, as the Bishop of 
Lichfield has very well observed, it has become almost a 
law of our political and social condition that those who 
are charged with the responsibility of public situations 
should from time to time take the opportunity of bringing 
themselves into contact, outside the walls of Parliament, 
with various classes of their fellow-countrymen. And 
permit me to sav that I believe none are more willing to 
submit to that "law than we, whose duties, whose habits, 
and whose privilege it is, as far as our limited opportunity 
allows, thus to seek occasion of meeting face to face those 
with whom we sympathise, and those with whom we de- 
sire to sympathise — those upon whose cultivated minds 
and intelligent convictions the Government of this free 
country in the main depends. For we feel that a great 
portion of the strength we may possess, of any capacity 
which may be accorded to us to serve our country, must 
depend upon our living and acting in the light of day, 
and upon our making ourselves thoroughly acquainted 
with the studies and the progress of mind and intelligence 
among our fellow-countrymen. It is a matter, in another 
view, of the greatest interest to me to come to King's 
College. In the first place, I never can forget how im- 
portant has been the part which this institution has taken 
in the general movement of the age. Most of us think in 
this country that, whatever be the special designation 
under which wc may be ranged by others, or under which 
we would like to range ourselves, the greatness and 
strength of England consist in reconciling and harmonising 
together what is old in our laws and institutions with 
what is new in the real demands and in the real civilisa- 
tion of the time in which we live. If other countries 
have been less happy in their destiny— if they be preci- 
pitated upon violent and even bloody changes— if even 
these violent and bloody changes have failed for them to 
issue in stable order and extended ireedom— it is because 
they have not had the se*et of reconciling those various 
elements of their constitution and their condition ; but 
they have come into violent collision one with another. 
In that work of reconciling and harmonising, which is the 
great characteristic of this country, King's College hag 
borne a distinguished part. It was founded with one hand, 
as it were, laid upon the tradition of the past— upon the 
laws, the religion, and institutions of the country — and 
with the other hand pointing and beckoning onward, and 
announcing the intention of those who founded it and 
those by whom it was conducted to offer within its walls 
to the intelligence of their countrymen the means of 
meeting and satisfying every demand society was likely 
to make upon its resources. We have now, I venture to 
think, reached a time when it is no longer a question, so 
far as this institution is concerned, whether that recon- 
ciliation can be happily effected. 1 know that much has 
been due to the labours of the excellent Principal who 
now so worthily occupies that place— I know that much- 
has been due to the ability, self denying zeal, and un- 
wearied assiduity of the teachers and professors of this 
College ; but not even these powerful agencies would have 
availed to effect the results which have been actually 
achieved unless the principle had been sound, and unless 
the plan of the CoUege had bees found to combine a just 



relation to practical experience. But I must say that to 
those who occupy positions such as that which I unwor- 
thily 411, opportunities like these are the means of afford- 
ing many lessons. It is true that this ancient community 
of which we are members is likewise in one sense a young 
community, because it has about it the vigour, elasticity, 
and growth of youth ; and while it expands in power we 
rejoice to believe that it is likewise growing more and 
more compact in internal solidity and strength. The 
meeting of class with class, to which reference has been 
made from several and distinct positions, tends to 
unite us in mind and heart. It is true I require 
to think that in the sphere in which I ordinarily live 
and move, so much has been done to consolidate the in- 
stitutions of the country by improving its laws and by 
bettering the condition of its people. But it is also true 
that if we want to know what is the special security of 
our social strength and national prosperity we must look 
for it, not in what can be done by Parliaments and legis- 
latures, but by the earnest, patient intelligence and self- 
denying efforts of men and public bodies, who do their duty 
each in hi* own sphere. And 1 know no more valuable 
instance of the success of such efforts than in the case of 
the evening classes in King's College. There is no doubt 
a great want to be satisfied — there is no doubt that the im- 
mense commercial progress and material activity of the age 
require not only stimulants but correctives. They require 
not that they should be repressed, not that they should be 
discouraged, but that they should be balanced by the 
higher cultivation of our nature — of our intellectual and 
moral and, above all, of our spiritual nature. There have 
been made efforts, which I cannot characterise otherwise 
than most gallant, to cany that higher degree of cultiva- 
tion into spheres which of all others it was the most dif- 
ficult for it to enter — I mean the sphere of those who are 
already burdened with the avocations which ordinary men 
may well deem to be fully equal to their strength, and 
such as entitle them when the ordinary labours of the day 
are done to retire to their repose. But it has been shown 
that there is in society, even in the heart of this vast and 
crowded metropolis, no inconsiderable portion of men — an 
increasing portion, I hope, and venture to believe — who 
are willing, even after the exhaustion of the day, to enter 
on new efforts, for the purpose of giving to their minds the 
immense advantages that are to be derived from refined 
education. In the profession to which I belong we do, for 
six months in the year, at any rate, know something ot 
what it is, within the compass of 24 hours, to finish one 
day's work and then to go down to Westminster and begin 
• another. So far I am able to sympathise with you, be- 
cause that which we do under the strongest obligations — 
that which 1 venture to say we must do almost whether 
we like it or not — you have done by a free and 
spontaneous effort, and the result is recorded in the 
marks of distinction which I have just distributed. I 
for my part do not go down as far as the lowest classes 
in this countiy are concerned. It becomes a matter 
of increasing difficulty to induce even young men 
among us to make the efforts and exertions which are 
necessary to achieve progress in the work of education. 
There can be no doubt that we require in all classes of 
society the stimulus of necessity in order to induce us to 
labour and to reap through labour the reward it pro- 
duces. It is impossible not to see what immense labour is 
required of the teachers of our schools and our Universi- 
ties, who have to do with the highest classes of the 
country, and in how many cases it happens that the most 
devoted labours bestowed in the most intelligent manner 
and with a zeal and self-denial not to be exceeded pro- 
duce but slender results ; but there is a broader stratum of 
society, an immense mass of intelligent material, which is 
susceptible of every kind and degree of cultivation ; and 
if we have come to the time when, in certain classes of 
society, the attractions of wealth and the outer world 
prove too much for the more sober attractions of learning, 
then it has become more than ever necessary that we 

should look downwards into those veins of rich material 
in which the English nation abounds, and that, by efforts 
such as these, new recruits should be continually brought 
forth in increasing numbers to add themselves to the body 
of those who are the followers of the muses or students 
in the inferior walks of letters and mental cultivation. It 
is therefore a great work to which the promoters of these 
evening classes have addressed themselves, and the im- 
portance of which cannot be measured even by the results 
attained within these walls. Much may be done here, 
but why should not that much be multiplied elsewhere ? 
You have had no advantages, you have had no powers, 
except what are possessed by others. What a man has 
done a man may do; but you have lifted up a lamp in 
the face of the country which I trust will serve to lead 
others to imitate the efforts here made, and to draw forth 
industrious youths — not excluding other periods of 
life, for nothing has struck me more than the man- 
ner in which varied ages are here combined in one affec- 
tionate brotherhood and one generous emulation — to draw 
forth the struggling energies of youth, to satisfy its nobler 
aspirations, and to call it away, not only from vice and 
dissipation, but from sluggishness and indolence, and to en- 
courage every man to find within himself, and to develops 
to the best of his abilities, the gifts with which Providence 
has endowed him. I rejoice to see that these evening 
classes have been attended by no common success. I need 
not say how cordially I wish the promoters continued 
success in their meritorious labours, nor need I assure those 
to whom I have had the honour of distributing, with my 
own hands, the prizes and certificates, how earnestly I 
desire that the rewards they have received, and the testi- 
monials afforded to them to-night may be to them not 
merely signals and records of what they have done, but 
also much more — namely, incentives and encouragements 
to persevere in a continuing industry, to continue the cul- 
tivation of their gifts, to consider themselves responsible 
before God and man, every one of them, for applying and 
opening up to the best of their ability all the faculties they 
possess, and to find in the exercise of those faculties, and in 
their exertions in every work that is for the glory of God 
and the good of man, no small solace amid the difficulties 
of life, no small pledge that, when that life comes to its 
close, it may prove to have been but the harbinger of a 
better and a brighter one. I beg to return you my sincere 
thanks for the vote you have passed, and to assure you 
that the instruction which I receive, and the practical 
knowledge I derive from meeting you on an occasion like 
the present encourages me in the laborious profession to 
which I too am given, and satisfies me more and more 
that the increasing strength and happiness of this country 
will continue to be found in efforts like this — in con- 
scientious individual exertion, each man striving for him- 
self to do his duty to the best and utmost of his ability in 
that sphere and station of life to which it has pleased God 
to call him. 



Sir, — Your last impression contains a letter on the 
Sewing Machine, in which the writer asks, " why it is 
only used for complicated and ornamental sewing, and not 
for sewing two selvages together ?" 

Now, sewing selvages together in the manner spoken 
of, forms but a small portion of the business of the seam- 
stress ; the seam not being sufficiently strong is, in almost 
all cases, superseded by the fell seam, which is performed 
in the most perfect manner by the machine. 

Shirts are now entirely made by the machine, except 
the sewing on of buttons" and working the button holes. 
The greater part of tailors' work is also performed by the 
machine, the tailor having little to do except fitting and 



The feet of shirts being made throughout by the 
machine is sufficient to show its applicability to domestic 

Mr. Reveley also asks, " why the machine uses three 
times the amount of thread used by hand ? " This is not 
the case. In a machine producing the lock-stitch, one 
yard and-a-half of upper thread, and one yard and-a- 
quarter of bottom thread, are required for one yard of 
tine stitching ; whereas, by hand, it requires three yards 
of thread for one yard of stitching. In coarse work the 
machine has a greater advantage. 

The waste is also much less, for, by the machine, ten 
yards of stitching may be done without stopping, and by 
hand it is necessary to rethread the needle for each half- 

Mr. Reveley further intimates that a higher charge is 
made for sewing by the machine. This is also a fallacy, 
as in the best paid work, viz., collars, 9d. per gross is paid 
for stitching, some of the girls earning, at this rate, £1 
per week. Anyone who knows the price of hand work 
will at once admit that this is much cheaper. 
I am, &c, 


7, St. James's-place, Hampstead-road, N.W. 


Sm, — The late severe drought in the South African 
provinces has attracted considerable attention towards the 
discovery of means for providing such supplies of water as 
shall mitigate the severity of future dry seasons. The 
time has hardly yet arrived for the utilisation of the 
waters of the Orange River, by raising the banks, 
constructing irrigation canals, and otherwise provid- 
ing for agriculture. Much, however, may be accom- 
plished by such associations as the " South African Irri- 
gation Company," in damming small streams, digging 
tanks, and protecting the water thus stored by the en- 
couragement of a judicious vegetation. Nor, following 
the idea first started by Dr. Livingstone, are artesian 
wells entirely hopeless. There are many favourable lo- 
calities in which deep borings might be made (especially 
in the Dutch African republics) with every prospect of 
success. A late writer in Chambers' Journal 6tates, in 
an article entitled " The Home of the Gazelle" (1862), 
that artesian wells have been successfully made in Algeria, 
in the northern borders of the Sahara, but his remarks re- 
quire confirmation. Could any of your scientific readers 
verify the assertion ? 

If, as this writer declares, French engineers have suc- 
ceeded in procuring a perennial supply of water south of 
the Atlas chain of mountains, there can be but little 
doubt that similar supplies could be obtained in many 
places in the south of the Continent. 

Should any of your readers be able to direct me to any 
French or English publication, descriptive of the accom- 
plishment of this alleged engineering feat, it would 
oblige, Yours, &c, 

J. F. W. 

2, Market-terrace, St. Leonard*s-on-Sea. 

^tamUmp of Institutions. 

Leicester Church op England Institute. — The 
fifth annual report presented to the general meeting o 
the members, held on the 30th January last, says that 
the committee of the Church of England Institute feel 
justified in claiming a very fair measure of success for the 
Institute during the past year. The present number of 
junior members is 65, showing an increase of 18 over the 
corresponding quarter of the previous year. The subscrip- 
tions of the junior members for the year 1862 also show 
an increase of £3 0s. 2d. over those for 1861. The Com- 
mittee believe that the classes of the Institute were 

never in a more flourishing condition than at present. 
There could not be a more satisfactory proof of the in- 
terest taken by the members in the work of self-efluca- 
tion and self-improvement. The following statement will 
show the present condition of the classes, and rhe num- 
bers by which they are respectively attended. It will of 
course be understood that in many cases the members of 
one class attend others also : — Arithmetic, 15 ; English 
history, 6 ; music, 13 ; Latin, 6 ; German, 5 ; Greek, 
2 ; essay and discussion, 8 ; French, 26. The best 
thanks of the Committee are due to the teachers of the 
several classes. The Committee in their last report 
held out the hope of aiding in the establishment of 
reading-rooms for the working classes in various parts 
of the town. One such reading-room has been estab- 
lished during the past year in Union-street, out of High- 
street, and is aided by the loan of some periodicals from 
the Institute. The Committee would gladly extend the 
operations of the Institute in this direction. The Trea- 
surer's statement shows that the expenses have been 
£94 2s. 6d., and that there is a balance due to the 
treasurer of £15 8s. 8d. 


Mon. ...Entomological, 7. 

British Architects, 8. 

R. Asiatic, 3. 

Royal Inst., 3. General Monthly Meeting. 

Royal United Service Inst., 8}. Lieut. P. H. Colomb, R.N., 
" Naval and Military Signals." 
Toes. ...Civil Engineers, 9. President's Annual Conversazione. 

Photographic, 8. 

Ethnological, 8. Professor Tagore, " A Discourse on the 
Institution and Formation of the Caste System in India, 
Aryan Polity." 

Royal Inst., 3. Prof. Tyndall, " On Sound." 

Architectural Museum, South Kensington, 7$. Mr. J. C. 
Robinson, " On the Art Collections at South Kensington, 
considered in reference to Architecture." 
Wbb, ...Society of Arts, 8. Mr. William Hawes, " On the Results of 
the International Exhibition of 1862." 

Geological, 8. 1. "On the Relations of the Sandstones of 
Cromarty with Reptilian Footprints." By the Rev. George 
Gordon LL.D., and the Rev. J. M. Joass ; with an intro- 
duction by, and communicated by, Sir R. I. Murchison, 
K.C.B., 4c. 2. Mr. J. Prestwich, " On the Section at 
Moulin- Quignon, and on the peculiar character of some of 
the Flint Implements found there." 3. Mr. J. Carries: 
Moore, *' On some Tertiary Shells from Jamaica." With 
a Note on the Corals, by P. Martin Duncan, M.B. Lond., 
F.G.S. 4. Mr. J.DenisMacdonald,"Descriptionofanew 
Fossil Thecidtum from the Miocene Beds of Malta." Com- 
municated by the President. 
Thurs... Antiquaries, 8|. 

Limuean, 8. 1. Mr. S. J. A. Salter, " On a sexual Mon- 
strosity in the genus Passiflora." Messrs. R. Trimmen and 
Charles Darwin, '• On the fertilisation of Lisa grandiflora, 

Chemical, 8. Mr. Marccllin Berthelot, " Synthetic Method* 
in Organic Chemistry." 

Royal Soc. Club, 6. 

Royal Inst., 3. Prof. Ansted, " On Geology." 
FBI Philological, 8. 

Koyal Inst., 8. Mr. John Ruskin, " On the Forms of the 
Stratified Alps of Savoy." 

Archaeological Inst., 4. 

R. United Service Inst., 3. Lieut.-Col. A. Strange, " Tele- 
scopes and Opera Glasses for use in the Field or at Sea." 
Sat Inst, of Actuaries, 3. Annual Meeting. 

Royal Inst., 3. Professor William Thomson, " On Electric 



Delivered o» Wh April, 1863. 

77. Bills — Local Government Act (1858) Amendment (amended). 

78. „ Telegraphs (as amended on Consideration of Bill a* 

North America (Neutral Vessels and Mails)— Correspondence 

(No. 5). 
North America (Neutral Rights and Duties)-Correspondenee 

with Mr. Adams (No. 6). 



Sessioh 1862. 
307 (c.) Poor Rates and Pauperism— Return (C). 

Delivered on 16th April, 1863. 
152. Naval Cadets — Return. 
155. British Museum — Return and Estimate. 
166. Exchequer Bonds — Account. 

Delivered on 11th April, 1863. 
160. Navy (Ships)— Return. 
79* Bill — Savings Banks. 

Army (Employment of Soldiers and their Children in Trades) 
— Report. 

Copies of the under-mentioned Papers, presented by command, will 
be delivered to Members of Parliament applying for the same at the 
Office for the Sale of Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons : — 

19. Turnpike Trusts - Fifth Report from Secretary of State. 

20. Sanitary Condition of Barracks and Hospitals— Appendix to 

Report of 1861 (interim Reports). 

Delivered on lath and 20th April, 1863. 

156. Change of Name — Return. 

157. Grants of Arms — Return. 

168. Crown Lands (Ireland) — Returns. 

172. Commercial Harbours— Return. 

Delivered on list April, 1863. 
151. Rotherham Sanitary Condition — Reports, Ac. 
162. Brewers' Licences— Returns. 
170. Chapters— Return. 

173. Army (Colonies) — Return. 

174. Registry of Deeds (Ireland) — Return. 

177. New Zealand — Correspondence. 

176. Army (Manufacturing Establishments) — Return. 

Delivered on 22nd April, 1863. 

136. Savings Banks (Number of Depositors, &c. ) — Accounts. 
136 (1.) Savings Banks (Sums Paid or "Withdrawn, Ac.) — Return. 

137. National Debt — Account. 

158. Naval Prize Money, &c. — Return. 

169. Public Income and Expenditure — Account. 

178. Russian War, 1855 (Kertch and Yenikale) — Estimate. 

179. Prince Consort's Memorial — Estimate. 

29. Railway and Canal, Ac. Bills (204. Birmingham and Sutton 
Coldfleld Extension Railway; 205. Dublin Metropolitan 
Railway; 206. London, Brighton and South Coast Railway 
(New Lines to the Crystal Palace, &c.) 207. London Rail- 
way (Victoria Section); 208. Lynn and Sutton Bridge Rail- 
way ; 209. Northumberland Central Railway; 210. Oswestry 
and Newtown and other Railway Companies Amalgamation, 
&c. ; 211. Bonelli's Electric Telegraph Company) — Board of 
Trade Reports. 

Session 1862. 
390. Colonies (Public Officers)— Return. 

Delivered on 22rd April, 1863. 

147. Colonies (Area, Population, Ac.) — Return. 

148. Sugar Duties i Mauritius) -Return. 
163. Brazil— Return. 

105. Sewage Commission — Return. 

167. Ecclesiastical Commission (Ireland)— Annual Report, Ac. 

171. Cathedral and Collegiate Churches — Return. 

81, Bills — English Church Services in Wales (amended). 

83. ,, Municipal Elections. 

85. „ Land Drainage (Provisional Orders). 

86. „ Poor Removal. 

87. „ Illegitimate Children (Ireland.)— Lords Amendments. 
Salvador — Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation. 

Session 1862. 
476. Emigration — Return. 

Delivered on 24th April, 1863. 
29. Railway and Canal, Ac. Bills (212. London, Chatham, and 

Dover Railway \ No. 1)— Board of Trade Report. 
181. Army (Employment of Soldiers in Trades)— Return. 
183. Immigrants and Liberated Africans — Return. 
84. Bills — Local Government Supplemental. 
88. ,, Marriages Ac. (Ireland) (amended). 

Session 1862. 
Poor Rates and Pauperism. — Return (A.) 

91. Bills— Customs and Inland Revenue. 

89. „ Metropolitan and City of London Tolice Amalgamation. 
Civil Service Commissioners — 8th Report. 
North America— Correspondence respecting Dispatch of Letten 

by Private Ships to Matamoros (No. 7.) 
Coolie Immigration into the Island of Reunion from Britutt 
India — Despatch. 

Delivered on 28th April, 1863. 
213. Court of Chancery— Abstract of Return. 
45 (3.) Trade and Navigation Accounts (31st March, 1863.) 
209. Railways (Entailed Estates)— Lords Report. 
180. Survey (United Kingdom)— Returns. 
190. Navy (Iron-Plated Ships)— Return. 
195. Paper and Rags — Accounts. 
204. Established Church (Ireland)— Return. 

92. Bill— Courts of the Church of Scotland. 
Smyrna (Fines inflicted)— Return. 

Delivered on 29th April, 1863. 
192. Paupers (Ireland)— Return. . 

197. Metroplitan Railways— Copy of Mr. Bazalgette s Report. 
201. Education — Return. 
82. Bill— Church Building and New Parishes Acts Amendment. 
North America (Confederate Agentsin England)— Correspond- 
ence with Mr. Adams ( No. 8). 
North America (Enlistment of British Subject* in the Federal 
Army) — Correspondence with Mr. Adams (No. 9.) 

307 (A IX. 

Session 1861. 
493. Poor Rate Exemption — Return. 

Delivered on the 25th and 21th April, 1863. 
101 (1.) Churchyards — Further Return. 

145. Increase ami Diminution(Public Offices)— Abstract of Accounts. 
18C. Metropolis Turnpike Roads— 37th Report of Commissioners. 

187. Roman Catholic Prisoners (Perth) Copy of Correspondence. 

188. Militia (Ireland) — Itcturns. 

193. National Portrait Gallery— 6th Report of Trustees. 

194. British North America (Arms, *c.)— Return. 
118. East India (Chinchona Plant)— Return. 

159. Australian Coal— Report of Commodore Seymour. 
185. Queen's Aides do Camp, Ac. — Return. 

189. Judgments for Debts — Return. 

199. Poor Law (Lancashire Unions) — Returns. 
214. Registry of Deeds (Ireland) — Return. 



Session, 1862. 
307 (ax.) Poor Rates and Pauperism— Return (A.) 

Delivered on 30M April, 1863. 
198. Tenure and Improvement of Land (Ireland) — Abstract of 

215. Kitchen and Refreshment Rooms (House of Commons)— Re- 
port from Committee. 
93. Bill— Naval Medical Supplemental Fund Society Winding-up 
Act (1861) Amendment. 
North American (Seizure of Mail Bags on board the Aaela)— 

Extract from a Despatch (Mo. 10). 
Insurrection in Poland— Correspondence. 

Delivered on 1st May, 1863. 
Navy (Dockyard Officers, Ac.)— Return. 
Record Office- -Return. 
Army — Return. 

East India (Civil Service)— Return. 
Government Property — Return. 

Ramsgate Harbour— Statement of Receipts and Payments, Ac. 
Salmon Fisheries (Ireland)— Return. 
East India (Waste Lands (—Return. 

Bills— Thames Embankment (North Side) amended by the 
Select Committee 1. 
„ Anckors and Chain Cables. 

„ Local Government Act (1858) Amendment (Lord! 

Delivered on 2nd and 4 th May, 1863. 
175. China War (Votes of Credit)-Account. 
196. Procession and Illumination Accidents (Metropolis)— Returns. 

223. Seamen's Savings Banks— Account. 

224. Mercantile Marine Fund — Account. 

218. East India (Bheels of Kandeish)— Return. 
216. Electric Light— Copies of Reports, Sic. 
222. Merchant Seamen's Fund— Account. 

228. East India (Oude Claims)— Copy of Despatch. 

229. Yorkshire (West Riding)— Return. 

230. Bann Navigation— Returns. 

101. Bills— Jurors Remuneration (amended). 

102. ,, Watchmen in Towns (Ireland). 

98. „ Sheep, Ac. Contagious Diseases Prevention. 
100. „ Stock Certificates to Bearer (amended.) 

Delivered on Mh May, 1803. 
90. Bills — Poisoned Grain Prohibition. 

103. ,, Accidents Compensation. 

Delivered ore Mh May, 1863. 

210. East India (Railways, ..c.)— Return. 

225. Church Lench School — Return. 

96. Bills — Poor Removal (No. 2). 

97. ,, Inland Revenue. 

Delivered on 1th May, 1863. 

211. East India (Consulting Railway Engineers)— Returns. 
221. Fortifications — Account. 

104. Bills— Uniformity Act Amendment. 

111. „ Securitv from Violence (amended). 
Poland— Further Correspondence (Part 2.) 

Delivered on 8th May, 1863. 
219. Thames Embankment (North Side) -Report from Committee. 
221. Fortifications— Account (a corrected copy). 

233. Procession '7th March)— Return. 

234. County Treasurers (Ireland)— Account. 

242. Steam Postal Service (Australia, Ac.)— Return. 
231. Fisheries (Ireland)— Copy of Correspondence. 

112. Bills — New Zealand Boundaries. 

113. „ Offences (South Africa). 

Public General Acts-Cap. 8, 9, 10, and 11 (Delivered ou 4th 



Delivered on 9th and Uth May, 1863. 
146. Superannuations (Public Offices) — Account. 
182. Works and Public Buildings — Abstract Accounts. 
207. Royal Forests and Woodlands— Return. 

236. Holyhead Packet Harbour — Return. 

237. Navy (Iron- Plated Ships)— Return. 

238. Floating Piers (Thames) — Return. 

244. Sevastopol ( Arms, &c.) — Return. 

245. Poor Law (Patrick Bourke)— Return. 
105. Bills— Sale of Mill Sites, Ac. (Ireland). 



Pier and Harbour Orders Confirmation. 
,, Harwich Harbour. 

„ Stock Certificates to Bearer (as amended, in Committee, 
and on Consideration, as amended). 
„ Drainage and Improvement of Land (Ireland). 
;, Volunteers. 
„ Sheep and Cattle (Scotland). 

Session 1862. 
307 (A xi). Poor Rates and Pauperism— Return (A). 

Delivered on \2th May, 1863. 
39 (1). Coroners' Inquests— Further Return. 
132 (1). East India (Cotton)— Further Return. 
154. Harbours of Refuge — Return. 

251. Lord Chancellor's Benefices — Return. 

246. Lisburn Election Petition Withdrawal — Report from the 

General Committee of Elections. 

117. Bill— Salmon Fisheries (Scotland) Act Continuance. 

Delivered on izth May, 1863. 
232. Ramsgate Harbour -Abstract of Supplementary Account. 
237. Navy (Iron- Plated Ships) — Return (a corrected Copy). 
243. Public Debt— Account. 
250. Thames Conservancy — Paper. 

252. "Voters (Scotland)—! Return. 

Delivered on 14th May, 1863. 
57. Post Office Packet Service— Estimate. 
208. Union of Benefices Act — Return. 

247. Lighthouses, &c, Act — Paper. 

248. Income Tax — Return. 

253. Dublin Port— Account. 

254. Thames Embankment (North Side) New- street — Return. 
107. BUlfl— Sheriff Courts (Scotland). 

116. „ Court of Session (Scotland). 

118. ,, Marriages Registration (Ireland) (amended). 



[From Gazette, May 22nd, 1863.] 

Dated 21st January, 1863. 
192. H. Caro and J. Dale, Manchester — Imp. in obtaining colouring 
matters, part of which imp. is also applicable to dyeing and 

Dated 19th February, 1863. 
45i. B. P. Roberts, Kennington-oval, Surrey — Improved axle boxes 

for carriages or vehicles. (A com.) 

Dated 4th March, 1863. 
603. J. F. Gits, Antwerp— An improved furnace for the revivification 

of animal charcoal. 

Dated 20th March, 1863. 
751. J. Brigham and R. Bickerton, Berwick-upon-Tweed — Imp. in 

reaping or mowing machines. 

Dated 23rd March, 1863. 
797. h. Christofleau, 60, Boulevart de Strasbourg, Paris— Imp. in 

Dated Uth April, 1863. 
940. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet- street— Imp. in hardening and co- 
louring gypseous limestone and sand and calcareous stones. 
(A com. ) 

Dated 10th April, 1863. 
965. J. L. McLay, Liverpool— Imp. applicable to mariners' com- 

957. C. Terrett, CI if ton- place, Stapleton-road, Bristol — Imp. in pre- 
venting incrustation in steam boilers. 

959. W. Oldfield, Noble-street, St. Luke's— Imp. in the construc- 
tion of looks, applicable to despatch and other boxes, writing 
and dressing cases, and other similar receptacles. 

961. T. A. W. Clarke, Leicester — An improved construetion of 
shuttle driver, and apparatus for working the same. 

Dated 11th April, 1863. 

963. R.^ Knight, Dunkirk, France— Imp. in treating and preparing 
iron, copper, and other wires for telegraphic and other uses 
for the purpose of preserving them from corrosion or decay. 

965. J. Richmond, T. Richmond, and D. Harling, Burnley, Lan- 
cashire — Certain imp. in looms for weaving. 

967. R. C. Clapham, Walker, Northumberland — Treating the 
waste liquors from bleaching powder stills in order to obtain 
hydrochloric acid and other products therefrom. 

969. W. Massingham, Boston, Lincolnshire — Imp. in apparatus for 
cooling liquids. 

971. B. J. Webber, Newton Abbott, Devonshire— Imp. in apparatus 
"for separating corn from the ears, and for combing straw. 

Dated 18th April, 1863. 
973. W. S. Macdonald, Manchester— Imp. in apparatus for drying- 
animal, vegetable, and mineral substances. 
975. W. B. Burden, Malvern, Worcestershire — Imp. in wheels and 
axles applicable to locomotives, carriages, and paddle wheels. 
977. T. Hunt, Banbury— Improved apparatus for obtaining raotive- 

Dated 2Qth April, 1863. 
979. C. Randolph and J. Elder, Glasgow— Imp. in surface con- 

Dated 21st April, 1863. 
985. A. Ford, Stewart's -buildings, Battersea-fields, and R. Rigg, 3* 
Great Winchester-street — An improved method of re-form- 
ing and re-using old or waste vulcanised india rubber. 
987. J. Heap, Ashton-under-Lyne — Imp. in adjustable wrenches for 

nut pipes and pins. 
991. J. W. Nottingham, Clayton-place, Kennington-road — Imp. in 

two-wheeled vehicles. 
993. H. Donald, Johnstone, Renfrew, N.B. — Imp. in machinery or 

apparatus for bending or straightening metal plates. 
995. W. C. Cambridge, Bristol — Imp. in the construction of har- 

Dated 22nd April, 1863. 
1001. T. Grace, Bristol — Imp. in reaping and mowing machines, 

part of which imp. is applicable to other useful purposes. 
1003. E. J. Jeffs, 1a, St. James's- street, Old Steyne, Brighton, and 
T. Turner, Stan ley- bridge Wharf, King's-road, Chelsea — 
Imp. in the making and constructing of carriage ways. 

Dated 23rd April, 1863. 

1007. J. W. Proffitt, Park-road, Peckham. and W. L. Duncan, 218,. 
Pembroke- cottages, Caledonian- road— An improved mode 
and apparatus for distributing sand or any other suitable sub- 
stance or substances on the railways and tramways. 

1009. R. Richardson, Great George-stroet, Westminster — Imp. in 
railway permanent way. 

1011. W.Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Imp. in the manufacture of 
tiles, and in apparatus for the same. ( A com. ) 

1013. P. McGregor, Manchester — Imp. in machinery for spinning and 

Dated 24th April, 1863. 

1015. J. B. Daines, 5, Little Argyle-street West, Middlesex — Imp. in 
the preparation of stone, plaster, compo, iron, wood, and such 
like substances, so as to preserve them from decay. 

1017. J. Lambert, Sheffield— Imp. in ball cocks. 

1023. J. Thompson, Bilston — Imp. in the manufacture of barrels for 
fire-arms and other descriptions of tubes, and in apparatus or 
machinery to be employed for that purpose. 

1025. W. A. Shaw, New York— A mode of lining lead pipe with tin 
or its alloys. 

Dated 25th April, 1863. 

1029. L. de Breanski, Greenwich — Improved apparatus for fixing 
drills, which invention is also applicable for fixing apparatus 
for raising, supporting, and suspending weights, -and for other 
analogous purposes. 

1031. A. H. Clark and H. Hope, Birmingham— Imp. in valves for 
water, steam, and gas. 

1033. J. P. Nunn and E. B. Nunn, Royston, Cambridgeshire— Imp. 
in hoes and cultivators. 

1037. F. Walton, Uhiswick— Imp. in the manufacture of fabrics for 
covering floors and other surfaces, and in apparatus employed 

1039. I. Dimock, Manchester— Imp. in machinery for cleaning, sort- 
ing according to size, and doubling silk and other threads. 

1043. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Imp. in breech-loading 
fire-arms, (A com.) 

Dated 2l(h April, 1663. 

1045. S. Osborne, Bayswater — An improved machine for unwinding 
crinoline steel. 

1047. H. E. Carchon and E. F. Raybaud, 17, Rue Thevenot, Paris — 
Imp. in the manufacture of hats and bonnets, and mode of 
preparing feathers to be used in the said manufacture. 

1049. W. E. Gedge, 11, Wellington- street, Strand — Imp. in twyers 
or blast pipes, and in apparatus connected therewith. (A 

1051. W. Richards, Birmingham — Imp. in ordnance, fire-arms, and 

1053. F. Bennet, Holywell, Flintshire— An improved method of con- 
densing lead and other metallic fumes and vapours from 

1055. W. H. James, Old Kent-road— Imp. in indicating the locality 
of fire, applicable also to denoting the position of ships. 
Dated 2Sth April, 1863. 

1059. S. Ingledew, Stockton-on-Tees, Durham— Certain imp. in the 
method of obtaining iron from its ore, and in the subsequent 
treatment thereof for converting the product into a metallic 
state, and in apparatus connected therewith. 

1061. S. Crabtree, Bradford— Imp. in balling motions. 

1063. A. Kinder, 20, Cannon-street— Imp. in the manufacture of 
sheet metal and in ingots or plates of metal, and in the 
machinery or apparatus employed therein. 

1069. T. Moore, 27, Leadenh all-street — Imp. apparatus for laying 
down, protecting, and controlling submarine cables for tele- 
graphing from vessels moored off a coast to the shore. 

1071. G. Davies, 1, Serle-street, Lincoln's-inn— An improved machine 
for agitating and mixing substances. — A com. 

1073. Capt. H. Y. D. Scott, R.E., Brompton Barracks, near Chat- 
ham — Imp. in the manufacture of cementitious substances. 



Dated 29th April, 1863. 
1075* J* Rowley, Stafford-street, Peckham, Surrey— Imp. in the 
means or apparatus employed for recovering the fibres of 
wool from fabrics or materials composed of wool combined 
with cotton or other vegetable substances. 
lOH. W. Tarr, 112, York-street, Oxford-street, and E. Tarr, 40, 
Cavendish- street, Ox ford- street, Manchester — An imp. in 
1079. E. Leigh and F. A. Leigh, Manchester — Imp. in cotton gins 
and in the method of driving the same, part of which im- 
provements is applicable to other purposes. 
1081. H. Worms, 27, Park- crescent, Portland-place— -Imp. in appa- 
ratus for elevating guns. 
1633. F. Gretton, Burton- upon-Trent, Staffordshire — Imp. in heating 

the contents of mash tuns. 
1085. H. W. Ripley, Montpellier Lawn. Cheltenham— Imp. in appa- 
ratus for printing fibrous materials. (A com.) 

Dated ZMh April, 1863. 
1087. J. Wibberley, Manchester — Imp. in machinery or apparatus 

for winding cotton, silk, wool, or other threads on spools or 

1089. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Imp. in the manufacture of 

hydrocyanite of ammonia and of alkaline and earthy cyanides. 

1091. E. G. Brewer, 89, Chancery-lane — Imp. in welding and rolling 

metals, and in machinery connected therewith. (A com.) 
1093. J. Appleby, Manchester — Imp. in propelling ships and 


Dated 1st May, 1863. 

1095. J. M. Gray, 80, Prince Edwin-street, Liverpool — Portable ap- 

paratus or instruments for rivetting, caulking, chipping, and 
otherwise operating upon and treating metals and other sub- 

1096. E. Jones, Charlton, Kent— Imp. in drainage and in water- 

closets, and in the means and apparatus necessary for the same 

1097. W. Clissold, Dud bridge, Gloucestershire— Imp. apparatus for 

fulling woollen cloths and washing and cleansing woven 
1099. J. Badart, 9, Bishopsgate-street— Imp. in the preparation of 
rape seed cake, linseed cake, poppy seed cake, niger seed 
cake, sesseme seed cake, and ground nut cake. 

Dated 2nd May, 1863. 

1101. W. T. Smith, Dalston, Middlesex — Imp. in washing machines. 

1103. G. Burt, Birmingham — Imp. in machinery for punching, 
stamping, or forcing metals. 

1105. S. J. Bartlett, Maidstone — Imp. in apparatus for straining and 
drawing off liquids. 

1107. J. T. Oakley and T. Oakley. Grange-road, Bermondsey— Imp. 
in the construction of garden pumps, part of which said im- 
provements is applicable to fire-engines and other hydraulic 

Dated 4tt May, 1863. 

1109. E. R. Southby, Wareham, Dorset— Imp. in the extraction of 

scents from plants, flowers, and other odoriferous substances. 

1110. J. Fortune, Morton, near Bingley, in York — Improved means 

of joining or fastening together lace, blond, quilling, or similar 

1111. J. M. Johnson, E. Johnson, and C. Johnson, Castle-street, 

Holborn, and L. Bertling, Ironmonger-street, St. Luke's — 
Imp. in the production of show tablets, advertisements tab- 
lets, name plates, architectural facings and decorations, and 
other ornamental, decorative, and inscriptive articles. 
1113. G. Haseltine, 12, Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane— Imp. 
in springs for railway carriages and other purposes. 

Dated 5th May, 1863. 

1115. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's- inn-fields — Imp. in the manufac- 

ture of wrought iron and steel, and in the apparatus to be 
employed therein. (A com.) 

1116. W. Walsh, Manchester — Imp. in obtaining and purifying oxa- 

late of soda, which improvements are also applicable to the 
manufacture of oxalic acid. 

1117. R. G. Kent, Old Crompton- street, Soho— Imp. in the con- 

struction and arrangement of shades and reflectors for gas 

1119. W. Boothroyd, Halifax — Imp. in stationary engines or appara- 
tus for obtaining motive power. 

1123. J. H. Knott, Kelson- square, Black friars- road— Imp. in lamps. 

1125. W. C. Wilkins, Long acre — Imp. in lamps. 

Dated 6/ft May, 1863. 
T. Sagar, Burnley, Lancashire, and J. Wilkinson— Certain 
imps, in power looms for weaving. 

1129. W. E. Gedge, 11, Wellington-street, Strand— An improved 
toy. (Acorn.) 

1131. S. Mac-Kellen, Manchester — Certain imp. in watches and other 


1132. I. M. Singer, Glasgow— Imp. in sewing machines. 

1133. G. Davies, 1, Serle-street, Lincoln's-inn — Imp. in machinery 

or apparatus for forging and dressing horse-shoe and other 
nails. (A com.) 
1135. A. Sturrock, Doncaster — Imp. in locomotive engines and 

Dated 1th May, 1863. 
1148. T. Holliday, Huddersfield — An improved blue colouring matter. 

Dated Sth May, 1863. 
1150. A. Skwarcow, 24, LeadenhalL street — Imp. in the construction 

of turntables. (A com.) 
1152. J. S. Grimshaw, Huncoat, near Accrington, Lancashire— Imp. 

in looms for weaving, 
1156. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Imp. in coating wrought or 

other iron to protect it from corrosion or oxydation. (A 


Dated 9th May, 1863. 
1162. 3. Wilson, Manchester— Imp. in hoops or bands for fastening 

bales, and in machinery or apparatus for making the same. 
1164. J. Norie, Glasgow— Imp. in making moulds for casting, and in 

apparatus therefor. 
1170. R. A. Broom an, 166, Fleet-street — Imp. In the manufacture of 

lamp black. (A com.) 
1172. J. Burrell, 85, Back Church-lane, Whitechapel— Imp. in ma- 
chinery for cutting the teeth of bevelled wheels. 
1174. J. Burrell, 85, Back Church-lane, Whitechapel— Imp. in 


Dated llth May, 1863. 

1178. R. Burgess, Machester — Imp. in machinery or apparatus for 
marking, etching, or engraving cylindrical and other surfaces. 

1182. J. Parkinson, Tichbourne-Btreet, Regent- street — A new or im- 
proved mode of manufacturing tablets to be used for monu- 
mental purposes. 

Dated 12th May, 1863. 

1188. W. Mattlson and G. Barker, Leeming Bar, near Bedale, York- 
shire — Imp. in grass mowing and reaping machines. 

1194. H. L. Emery, Sloane- street, Chelsea — Imp. in apparatus for 
manufacturing saws suitable for ginning cotton and for other 
uses. (Acorn.) 

1196. R. A. Brooraan, 166, Fleet-street— Imp. in spring mattresses, 
sofas, chairs, seats, and similar articles. (A com.) 

Dated 13th May, 1863. 
1198. H. Rush ton, 48A, Northampton -road, Clerk en well— Imp. in 

head dresses. 
1202. F. HoJthausen, 40, Rue de Richelieu, Paris— An improved 

portable copying press. 
1204. V. J. CasoaigneB, 8, Rue des Fosses, St. Jacques, Paris— Imp. 

in stereoscopes. 
1206. B. Lambert, 35, Lothian-road, Camberwell New-road— Imp. 

in paper makers rag or pulp engines. 

Dated uth May, 1863. 

1210. T. Lawrence, Salford, Lancashire— Certain imp. in machinery 
or apparatus used in the processes or operations of drying, 
dressing, brushing, waxing, and finishing fabrics. 

1212. A. PUbeam, Glasgow— Imp. in sewing machines. 

1214. J. Burrell, 85, Back Church-lane, Whitechapel— Imp. in the 
construction of cocks or valves. 

Invention with Complete Specification Filed. 

1163. W. E. Gedge, 11, Wellington-street, Strand— Imp. in the ma- 
nufacture of paper, stuff, or pulp, from certain vegetable 
substances. (A com.)— 9th May, 1863. 

1218. G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough -park, Brixton, Surrey— Imp. in 
machinery for rolling, grinding, and cutting files and rasps. 
(A com.)— 14th May, 1863. 

Patents Sealed. 
[From Gazette, May 22nd, 1863.] 
May 22nd. 
3167. T. M. Elton. 
3170. J. Steinthal. 
2171. F. Palling. 
3174. J. R. Danks, B. P. Walker, 

and R. P. Walker. 
3176. J. Halford. 
3179. T. Keyworth. 

3180. W. T. Rowlett. 

3181, D. Auld and D. Auld, jun. 
3183. D. Veerkamp and C. F. A. 

Van Trigt. 
3415. G. E. M. Gerard. 
3422. F. Parker. 
3473. H. A. Bonneville. 



May 15. 
,, 20. 


Improved Photographic Printing Frame ... 


f Machine for Freezing, Cooling, and| 
\ Churning j 

Proprietor's Name. 

Walter Blott 532a, Kew Oxford- street. 

Hugh Hanly jlst Life Guards, Regenfs-park, N.W. 

Rupert Rains '4, Crescent, Bridge-street, Blackfriars.